New Insights into Animal-Borne Disease Outbreaks

In the wake of the recent Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa, a reevaluation of the ways plague spreads through prairie dog colonies in the western United States has yielded insights that could help explain outbreaks of plague, Ebola, and other diseases that can be transmitted by animals to humans. These include West Nile Virus disease and MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome). The study, led by Dan Salkeld and Mike Antolin of Colorado State University and described in the journal BioScience, suggests that even deadly diseases may persist unnoticed in a population for years as smoldering infections, rather than jump from another species immediately before an outbreak. Moreover, the investigations commonly launched after a human outbreak can yield misleading information about which host species were actually responsible. For instance, it seems that grasshopper mice and coyotes, which scavenge plague-killed black-tailed prairie dogs, may speed transmission of the plague-causing bacterium by acquiring and spreading the flea vectors. Thus, fleas can transmit plague faster than was once thought. According to Salkeld and colleagues, the disease can persist in wider prairie dog populations through repeated dispersal and reinvasion despite local outbreaks that can kill 95%-100% of the members of affected colonies. The authors state that this "slow, smoldering, cryptic disease transmission in animal populations prior to outbreaks in humans is... a hypothetical explanation f...
Source: BioScience Press Releases - Category: Biology Source Type: news

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la P, Gutiérrez Castañeda B Abstract Flaviviruses are positive, single-stranded, enveloped cytoplasmic sense RNA viruses that cause a variety of important diseases worldwide. Among them, Zika virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Dengue virus have the potential to cause severe disease. Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate the structure and replication strategies of flaviviruses, and current studies are aiming to unravel the complex molecular interactions between the virus and host during the very early stages of infection. The outcomes of viral infection and rapid est...
Source: Sub-Cellular Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Subcell Biochem Source Type: research
Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerged human pathogen, belonging to a super serogroup with dengue virus. Infection of ZIKV can lead to severe congenital symptoms, such as microcephaly, in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. To date, no prophylactics and therapeutics are available. Flavivirus envelope (E) protein represents the major target for neutralizing antibodies, while antibody response is the key correlate of protection against ZIKV infection. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were found to neutralize ZIKV infection and some of them exhibited strong potential as antivirals. In th...
Source: Sub-Cellular Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Subcell Biochem Source Type: research
In this study we used carefully validated methods to monitor enteric viruses, namely adenovirus (AdV), JC polyomavirus (JCV), noroviruses (NoVs), sapovirus (SaV) and hepatitis A and E viruses (HAV and HEV) from wastewater source to beaches and shellfish beds. Wastewater influent and effluent, surface water, sediment and shellfish samples were collected in the Conwy catchment (North Wales, UK) once a month for one year. High concentrations of AdV and JCV were found in the majority of samples, and no seasonal patterns were observed. No HAV and HEV were detected and no related illnesses were reported in the area during the pe...
Source: Adv Data - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: Sci Total Environ Source Type: research
Authors: Martínez Andrés B, Sastre Lozano V, Sánchez Melgarejo JF Abstract Sweet syndrome is a common extraintestinal manifestation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this research, a 42-year-old man case with colon Crohn's disease is been described. After failure with two anti-TNF therapies, in treatment with azathioprim, it was decided to start a therapeutic target change to Vedolizumab due to a severe outbreak refractory to corticosteroids. 24 hours after the infusion of the new drug, skin lesions appear along with leukocytes with neutrophilia, all suggestive of sweet syndrome later con...
Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Rev Esp Enferm Dig Source Type: research
GIDEON what’s new summary: June 14 to June 16, 2018 Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (11 updates) 11 DiseasesMap Infectious Diseases – Diseases (83 updates) 34 Diseases47 Country notes2 New Country Synonyms AddedMap The post Update: June 16, 2018 appeared first on GIDEON - Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Online Network.
Source: GIDEON blog - Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: Tags: What's New Source Type: blogs
Del Monte Fresh Produce N.A., Inc. ( " Del Monte Fresh " ) announced today, the voluntary recall of a limited quantity of 6 oz., 12 oz. and 28 oz. vegetable trays containing fresh broccoli, cauliflower, celery sticks, carrots, and dill dip sold to select retailers in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin. Del Monte was notified by state agencies of the outbreak and its potential involvement.
Source: Food and Drug Administration - Category: Food Science Source Type: news
As an outbreak that sickened dozens forced a recall of some cereal products this week, federal officials announced a separate outbreak linked to fruit has expanded to almost two dozen states.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Salmonella (Bacteria) Food Contamination and Poisoning Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kellogg Company Source Type: news
A driving force behind this is the growing effort to find a long-term replacement for opioids, an addictive painkiller that has plunged the country into an epidemic of death and addiction.
Source: WebMD Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
As an outbreak that sickened dozens forced a recall of some cereal products this week, federal officials announced a separate outbreak linked to fruit has expanded to almost two dozen states.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Salmonella (Bacteria) Food Contamination and Poisoning Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kellogg Company Source Type: news
Across China, the virus that could spark the next pandemic is already circulating. It’s a bird flu called H7N9, and true to its name, it mostly infects poultry. Lately, however, it’s started jumping from chickens to humans more readily–bad news, because the virus is a killer. During a recent spike, 88% of people infected got pneumonia, three-quarters ended up in intensive care with severe respiratory problems, and 41% died. What H7N9 can’t do–yet–is spread easily from person to person, but experts know that could change. The longer the virus spends in humans, the better the chance that i...
Source: TIME.com: Top Science and Health Stories - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized CDC Disease ebola Gates Foundation MERS outbreak pandemic Zika Source Type: news
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