New Insights into Animal-Borne Disease Outbreaks

In the wake of the recent Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa, a reevaluation of the ways plague spreads through prairie dog colonies in the western United States has yielded insights that could help explain outbreaks of plague, Ebola, and other diseases that can be transmitted by animals to humans. These include West Nile Virus disease and MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome). The study, led by Dan Salkeld and Mike Antolin of Colorado State University and described in the journal BioScience, suggests that even deadly diseases may persist unnoticed in a population for years as smoldering infections, rather than jump from another species immediately before an outbreak. Moreover, the investigations commonly launched after a human outbreak can yield misleading information about which host species were actually responsible. For instance, it seems that grasshopper mice and coyotes, which scavenge plague-killed black-tailed prairie dogs, may speed transmission of the plague-causing bacterium by acquiring and spreading the flea vectors. Thus, fleas can transmit plague faster than was once thought. According to Salkeld and colleagues, the disease can persist in wider prairie dog populations through repeated dispersal and reinvasion despite local outbreaks that can kill 95%-100% of the members of affected colonies. The authors state that this "slow, smoldering, cryptic disease transmission in animal populations prior to outbreaks in humans is... a hypothetical explanation f...
Source: BioScience Press Releases - Category: Biology Source Type: news

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CONCLUSION: Even though the prevalence of HIV among drug users is not much higher than in the general population in Addis Ababa, the needle sharing prevalence was high. Thus, this baseline study shows the need to establish harm reduction programmes and prevention strategies for the PWID in Addis Ababa. PMID: 30319040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research
China will lift restrictions on an area in Wuxi city of Jiangsu province where an outbreak of African swine fever was found, the agriculture ministry said on Tuesday
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
A United Nations employee in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has tested positive for Ebola, the first such incident during the current outbreak, the head of the U.N. peacekeeping mission (MONUSCO) there said on Friday in a letter to staff.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases News Source Type: news
AbstractThe accurate measurement of anti-HLA alloantibodies in transplant candidates is required for determining the degree of sensitization and for the listing of unacceptable antigens for organ allocation. Both the configuration of the HLA molecules coated on the beads and the nature of detection antibodies may impede assessment of the presence and strength of anti-HLA IgG- with the Luminex single-antigen-bead assay. Sera antibodies of the end-stage renal disease patients were compared using LIFECODES (LC) and LABScreen (LS) beadsets monitored with polyclonal-Fab (IgHPolyFab) and monoclonal-IgG (FcMonoIgG) second antibod...
Source: Immunologic Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
omas Ksiazek Bin Gong Members of the family Filoviridae, including Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Given their high lethality, a comprehensive understanding of filoviral pathogenesis is urgently needed. In the present studies, we revealed that the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 (EPAC1) gene deletion protects vasculature in ex vivo explants from EBOV infection. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of EPAC1 using EPAC-specific inhibitors (ESIs) mimicked the EPAC1 knockout phenotype in the ex vivo model. ESI treatment dramatic...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
The World Health Organization (WHO) said on Monday it would convene an emergency committee to decide whether Congo's Ebola outbreak is a public health emergency of international concern as confirmed cases and deaths from the virus spiraled.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
Congo has confirmed 33 cases of Ebola virus in the past week, of whom 24 died, the health ministry said on Monday.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
as rate of new cases has doubled
Source: ABC News: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Health Source Type: news
World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, has called an Emergency Committee meeting on the Ebola virus outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), which has already claimed around 130 lives.
Source: UN News Centre - Health, Poverty, Food Security - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Across China, the virus that could spark the next pandemic is already circulating. It’s a bird flu called H7N9, and true to its name, it mostly infects poultry. Lately, however, it’s started jumping from chickens to humans more readily–bad news, because the virus is a killer. During a recent spike, 88% of people infected got pneumonia, three-quarters ended up in intensive care with severe respiratory problems, and 41% died. What H7N9 can’t do–yet–is spread easily from person to person, but experts know that could change. The longer the virus spends in humans, the better the chance that i...
Source: Top Science and Health Stories - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized CDC Disease ebola Gates Foundation MERS outbreak pandemic Zika Source Type: news
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