Characterizing the Flow of Thickened Barium and Non-barium Liquid Recipes Using the IDDSI Flow Test
In this study, we explored the flow characteristics of 20% w/v barium and non-barium stimuli prepared using starch and gum thickeners to reach the slightly, mildly and moderately thick liquid categories defined by the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI). Our goal was to identify recipes that would produce stimuli with stable flow properties over a 3 h time frame post mixing. Thickener concentration was titrated to achieve matching flow (i.e., IDDSI Flow Test results within a 1 ml range) across the four stimulus types (non-barium starch, non-barium gum, barium starch, barium gum) within each IDDSI level. The combination of barium and thickeners resulted in further thickening, particularly with starch-based thickening agents. A probe of the influence of refrigeration showed no difference in flow measures between chilled and room temperature stimuli over a 3-h time frame. Overall, recipes with stable flow over three hours were identified for all barium and non-barium liquids tested.
Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Phonetics, Volume 71Author(s): Qandeel HussainAbstractThe stop consonants of Indo-Iranian languages are categorized into two to maximum five laryngeal categories. The present study investigates whether Voice Onset Time (VOT) reliably differentiates the word-initial stop laryngeal categories and how it covaries with different places of articulation in ten languages (two Iranian: Pashto and Wakhi; seven Indo-Aryan: Dawoodi, Punjabi, Shina, Jangli, Urdu, Sindhi, and Siraiki; and one Isolate: Burushaski). The results indicated that there was a clear VOT distinction between the ...
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