Chapter 28 Concluding remarks

Publication date: 2018 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 153 Author(s): Maurizio Pocchiari, Jean Manson This is the first volume of the Handbook of Clinical Neurology totally devoted to prion diseases. The reason for this choice is to inform neurologists and neuroscientists about the remarkable advances that this field has made in the diagnosis of human and animal prion diseases, understanding the pathogenesis of disease, and in the development of novel in vivo and in vitro models. In recent years, the knowledge of prion replication and mechanisms of prion spreading within the brain and peripheral organs of infected people has also become important for understanding other protein misfolded diseases of the brain, such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Researchers in these diseases have recognized that the process within an individual leading to the deposition of misfolded proteins within the central nervous system shares remarkable common mechanisms with prion diseases, leading to the terminology of “prion-like diseases.”
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Abstract Neuroinflammation is an important part of the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Inflammatory factors destroy the balance of the microenvironment, which results in changes in neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation behaviour. However, the mechanism underlying inflammatory factor-induced NSC behavioural changes is not clear. Resistin is a proinflammatory and adipogenic factor and is involved in several human pathology processes. The neural stem cell microenvironment changes when the concentration of resistin ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
In this study, we show that calorie restriction is protective against age-related increases in senescence and microglia activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in an animal model of aging. Further, these protective effects mitigated age-related decline in neuroblast and neuronal production, and enhanced olfactory memory performance, a behavioral index of neurogenesis in the SVZ. Our results support the concept that calorie restriction might be an effective anti-aging intervention in the context of healthy brain aging. Greater Modest Activity in Late Life Correlates with Lower Incidence of Dementia ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusions: Exposure to pesticides increased the risk of getting the mentioned neurodegenerative diseases by at least 50%. Exposure to lead was only studied for ALS and Parkinson’s disease and involved 50% increased risk. Occupational exposure to EMFs seemed to involve some 10% increase in risk for ALS and Alzheimer’s disease only.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): P.C. Bello-Medina, R.A. Prado-Alcalá, S. Rivas-ArancibiaAbstractThe growth of many cities has generated an increase in the emission of environmental pollutants. Exposure to these pollutants has been associated with increased mortality worldwide. These pollutants, such as ozone, produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause oxidative stress throughout the body. It has been observed that there is a relationship between chronic oxidative stress and the development of degenerative diseases typical of old age such as amyotrophic lateral...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
As is the case for other neurodegenerative conditions, Alzheimer's disease has a strong inflammatory component. Even if other mechanisms are important, and there is very strong evidence for this to be the case, dysregulation of immune cells in the brain contributes notably to the progression of the condition. As recent work demonstrates, this dysregulation may arise in large degree because of the inflammatory signaling generated by senescent cells, but these errant cells are are not the only way in which the aged, damaged immune system can become more inflamed and thus more hostile towards the tissues it is supposed to hel...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 20 December 2018Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Hasnaa A. Elfawy, Biswadeep DasAbstractMitochondrial function is vital for normal cellular processes. Mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress have been greatly implicated in the progression of aging, along with the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Although antioxidant therapy has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of age-related NDs, unraveling the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunct...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Abstract Glycosylation, the enzymatic process by which glycans are attached to proteins and lipids, is the most abundant and functionally important type of post-translational modification associated with brain development, neurodegenerative disorders, psychopathologies and brain cancers. Glycan structures are diverse and complex; however, they have been detected and targeted in the central nervous system (CNS) by various immunohistochemical detection methods using glycan-binding proteins such as anti-glycan antibodies or lectins and/or characterized with analytical techniques such as chromatography and mass spectr...
Source: Biochemical Society Transactions - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Soc Trans Source Type: research
In conclusion, this is the first report to show that pyroptotic cell death occurs in the aging brain and that the inflammasome can be a viable target to decrease the oxidative stress that occurs as a result of aging. Reducing Levels of Protein Manufacture Slows Measures of Aging in Nematodes https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2018/12/reducing-levels-of-protein-manufacture-slows-measures-of-aging-in-nematodes/ Researchers here demonstrate that an antibiotic slows aging in nematode worms, providing evidence for it to work through a reduction in protein synthesis. Beyond a slowing of aging, one of the con...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
This study shows that minocycline prevents this build-up even in older animals with age-impaired stress-response pathways. The number of proteins in a cell is balanced by the rate of protein manufacture and disposal, called proteostasis. As we age, proteostasis becomes impaired. "It would be great if there were a way to enhance proteostasis and extend lifespan and health, by treating older people at the first sign of neurodegenerative symptoms or disease markers such as protein build-up. In this study, we investigated whether the antibiotic minocycline can reduce protein aggregation and extend lifespan in animals that...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Redox BiologyAuthor(s): Farzane Sivandzade, Shikha Prasad, Aditya Bhalerao, Luca CuculloAbstractElectrophiles and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in modulating cellular defense mechanisms as well as physiological functions, and intracellular signaling. However, excessive ROS generation (endogenous and exogenous) can create a state of redox imbalance leading to cellular and tissue damage 1. A growing body of research data strongly suggests that imbalanced ROS and electrophile overproduction are among the major prodromal factors in the onset and progr...
Source: Redox Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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