Chapter 20 Differential diagnosis with other rapid progressive dementias in human prion diseases

Publication date: 2018 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 153 Author(s): Michael D. Geschwind, Katy Murray Prion diseases are unique in medicine as in humans they occur in sporadic, genetic, and acquired forms. The most common human prion disease is sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), which commonly presents as a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD) with behavioral, cerebellar, extrapyramidal, and some pyramidal features, with the median survival from symptom onset to death of just a few months. Because human prion diseases, as well as other RPDs, are relatively rare, they can be difficult to diagnose, as most clinicians have seen few, if any, cases. Not only can prion diseases mimic many other conditions that present as RPD, but some of those conditions can present similarly to prion disease. In this article, the authors discuss the different etiologic categories of conditions that often present as RPD and also present RPDs that had been misdiagnosed clinically as CJD. Etiologic categories of conditions are presented in order of the mnemonic used for remembering the various categories of RPDs: VITAMINS-D, for vascular, infectious, toxic-metabolic, autoimmune, mitochondrial/metastases, iatrogenic, neurodegenerative, system/seizures/sarcoid, and demyelinating. When relevant, clinical, imaging, or other features of an RPD that overlap with those of CJD are presented.
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Publication date: August 2019Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 59Author(s): Bernadetta Lis, Beata OlasAbstractSince ancient times, dandelion (Taraxacum officinale L.) has been consumed in various forms as a valuable source of nutrients, minerals and vitamins which can also have beneficial effects on various complex diseases. It is described as a nontoxic herb with exceptional biological activity. The aim of this review is to present the multidirectional activity of various dandelion products whose dietary intake may help to prevent, or reduce the risk of, the development of a range of diseases, including cancer, ...
Source: Journal of Functional Foods - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
Authors: Robak E, Gerlicz-Kowalczuk Z, Dziankowska-Bartkowiak B, Wozniacka A, Bogaczewicz J Abstract Introduction: Immune system activation, microvascular abnormalities and extracellular matrix deposition in tissues play roles in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Th17 cells producing interleukin (IL)-17 are involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases; however, the role of IL-17 in SSc remains unclear. Material and methods: The concentrations of IL-17A, IL-17B, IL-17E, and IL-17F in the serum of patients with SSc and in the healthy control group were assessed with regard to type of the...
Source: Archives of Medical Science - Category: General Medicine Tags: Arch Med Sci Source Type: research
Authors: Imga NN, Karci AC, Oztas D, Berker D, Guler S Abstract Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem, and it is related to increased risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D has a beneficial effect on dyslipidemia and insulin secretion. We aimed to investigate the impact of vitamin D3 supplementation on anthropometric and laboratory parameters in overweight and obese premenopausal women. Material and methods: Seventy-two overweight and 50 obese vitamin-D-deficient premenopausal women (mean age: 43.1 ±10.4 years) were included in the stu...
Source: Archives of Medical Science - Category: General Medicine Tags: Arch Med Sci Source Type: research
We report how a lactate-based metabolic symbiosis acts as a mechanism of adaptive resistance to targeted therapies and we describe the role of mitochondrial metabolism, in particular oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), to support the growth and survival of therapy-resistant tumor cells in a variety of cancers. Finally, we detail potential metabolism-interfering therapeutic strategies aiming to eradicate OXPHOS-dependent relapse-sustaining malignant cells and we discuss relevant (pre)clinical models that may help integrate TME-driven metabolic heterogeneity in precision oncology.
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Atherosclerosis is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that can cause coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, depending on which arteries are affected. At the beginning of atherosclerosis plasma lipoproteins accumulate in the sub-endothelial space. In response, monocytes migrate from the circulation through the endothelium into the intima where they differentiate into macrophages. These early events trigger a complex immune response that eventually involves many cellular subtypes of both innate and adaptive immunity. The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionary conserved cell signaling system th...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
ConclusionNo significant difference was found in the clinical manifestations, mortality, and complication between children and adults but children tended to have lesser chance of using alternative antibiotics, methylprednisolone and inhaled NO. The chance of associated cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease was also significantly lower in children.
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study examined and identified the effect of AMI-induced AKI on organic anion transporter 1 (Oat1) and Oat3 transport using clinical setting of pre-renal AKI in vivo. Cardiac ischaemia (CI) and cardiac ischaemia and reperfusion (CIR) were induced in rats by 30-min left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and 30-min occlusion followed by 120-min reperfusion, respectively. Renal hemodynamic parameters, mitochondrial function and Oat1/Oat3 expression and function were determined along with biochemical markers. Results showed that CI markedly reduced renal blood flow and pressure by approximately 40%, while these...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: September 2019Source: Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 64, Issue 2Author(s): Angelika Bazyluk, Jolanta Malyszko, Tomasz Hryszko, Edyta ZbrochAbstractSirtuins represent a group of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dependent histone deacetylases, which regulates various biological pathways by promoting chromatin silencing and transcriptional repression. Therefore, they are linked to cellular energy metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, stress response, apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Since sirtuin 1 became a promising candidate for targeted therapies of numerous conditions, researchers have been i...
Source: Advances in Medical Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
In conclusion, our study demonstrates that orexin A peptide possesses a protective role against HBx-mediated cytotoxicity and inflammation in hepatocytes. PMID: 31106596 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Tags: Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol Source Type: research
Vascular protection of salicin on IL-1β-induced endothelial inflammatory response and damages in retinal endothelial cells. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019 Dec;47(1):1995-2002 Authors: Song Y, Tian X, Wang X, Feng H Abstract Retinal endothelial cells (RECs) are involved in many ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. Salicin is the major ingredient of willow bark extract, and it has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory agent. We aim to explore whether salicin has a vascular protective effect in RECs. Our data indicate that the presence o...
Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Tags: Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol Source Type: research
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