Current questions in bone sarcomas

Purpose of review Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, the most common primary bone tumours in young people, are curable in most patients. However, these tumours remain a significant challenge due to the complexity and intensity of treatment and its long-term morbidity and the significant proportion of patients in whom treatment is unsuccessful. This review addresses questions about current management and emerging therapeutic targets for patients with osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and chondrosarcoma, the commonest bone sarcoma but more common in older patients. Recent findings The largest collaborative international study in osteosarcoma, EURAMOS-1 determined that treatment of patients with resectable disease should not be altered on basis of pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In view of little improvement in outcome being evident in recent years, novel therapeutic approaches are required. Putative targets and clinical trials of novel agents are discussed, including emerging targets such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition and isocitrate dehydrogenase inhibition in Ewing sarcoma and chondrosarcoma, respectively. Newer radiotherapy techniques including proton beam and particle ion therapy may be important for local tumour control in selected patients. Summary Collaborative studies are essential to answer current questions and investigate novel therapies in these malignancies to improve outcome and quality of life for patients.
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 2 July 2019Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Elizabeth Thoenen, Amanda Curl, Tomoo IwakumaAbstractGenomic and functional study of existing and emerging sarcoma targets, such as fusion proteins, chromosomal aberrations, reduced tumor suppressor activity, and oncogenic drivers, is broadening our understanding of sarcomagenesis. Among these mechanisms, the tumor suppressor p53 (TP53) plays significant roles in the suppression of bone and soft tissue sarcoma progression. Although mutations in TP53 were thought to be relatively low in sarcomas, modern techniques including whole-...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Authors: XIX CONGRESSO NAZIONALE S.I.C.O.O.P. SOCIETA' ITALIANA CHIRURGHI ORTOPEDICI DELL'OSPEDALITA' PRIVATA ACCREDITATA, Capasso L, Florio M, Lillo M, Basilico M, De Santis V, Ziranu A, Grasso A, Minutillo F, Maccauro G Abstract With the advent of the molecularly targeted therapies, identifying molecular therapeutic targets and molecolar marker is increasingly important, especially in neoplastic diseases. Several studies show VEGF is involved in neo-angiogenesis in many solid cancers, as breast, lung, renal, gastric carcinomas, through promoting endothelial cell growth and migration. Conversely the relationship b...
Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research
In this study we aimed to a) find prognostic parameters for bone sarcomas using of F-18 FDG PET/CT (PET/CT) and b) determination of their optimal prognostic threshold. Methods: Pre-therapy PET/CT data of 97 patients (age 39.2 a, 2.7-87 a, f 43, m 54) with histologically confirmed osteosarcoma (OS, n= 39), chondrosarcoma (CS, n= 28) und Ewing sarcoma (ES n= 30) with a median follow-up of 3.9 years (range 0.2-11.5) were retrospectively analysed. A volume of interest defined for the primary tumor on CT was analysed for PET and CT using Medical Image Processing, Analysis and Visualization (MIPAV; National Institutes of Health)...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Sarcoma/ Melanoma Source Type: research
1295Introduction: Three-dimensional (3-D) displays for medical imaging is emerging field and very promising tools for diagnosis, therapy response and detection of tumor recurrence. Morphological criteria for therapy response (CR, PR, SD, PD) have been established with RECIST (Response evaluation criteria in solid tumors). With adoption of metabolic imaging with PET/CT, particularly with F-18-FDG in initial staging and follow up of tumors, there appears to be a need to modify these criteria not only on morphological imaging modalities like CT, but also on tumor metabolism parameters, like SUV (standardized uptake value) as ...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Musculoskeletal Posters Source Type: research
Conclusions: The proposed nomogram is a reliable and robust tool for accurate prognostic prediction in patients with extremity soft tissue LMS. Introduction Soft tissue leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is an aggressive sarcoma, which originates from smooth muscle cells (1). Soft tissue LMS accounts for about 5–10% of all soft tissue sarcomas (2). It occurs in different sites, including the retroperitoneum, intraabdominal sites, and extremities (3). Extremity LMS comprised about 10–15% of extremity sarcomas, with a preference for the lower limb (4–6). Extremity LMS tends to have a better prognosis than uterine...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, B7-H3 could be a target of bone cancers.
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
The objectives of this case-control study were to determine whether PSI-guided resection: 1) was associated with a lower local recurrence rate, 2) allowed a shorter operative time, 3) was associated with better-quality allograft reconstruction.HypothesisPSI-guided resection decreases the local recurrence rate by improving the resection margins in patients with primary pelvic bone sarcomas.Patients and methodsPSI-guided resection was performed in 9 consecutive patients (cases) with primary pelvic sarcomas (chondrosarcoma, n = 3; Ewing's sarcoma, n = 3; osteosarcoma, n = 1; fibrosarcoma, n ...
Source: Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Musculoskeletal tumors are rare, but descriptive data in any region are important in order to reduce mortality and improve treatment. No significant difference was found between the data of our hospital regarding epidemiology of the musculoskeletal system tumors and those from the other regions around the world. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, Therapeutic study. PMID: 30982757 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc Source Type: research
Abstract Small round cell lesions of the bone encompass a heterogeneous group of tumors and tumor-like lesions, including Ewing sarcoma, small cell osteosarcoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), "Ewing-like" undifferentiated round cell sarcomas, metastasizing small cell carcinoma, along with plasma cell dyscrasia and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. At the same time, there are tumor mimics, for example, chronic osteomyelitis, which has overlapping radiologic features with Ewing sarcoma and a primary intraosseous NHL. An exact diagnosis necessitates integration of cl...
Source: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Indian J Pathol Microbiol Source Type: research
Summary of Background Data: Primary osseous spinal neoplasms (POSNs) include locally aggressive tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and chordoma. For such tumors, surgical resection is associated with improved survival for patients. Socioeconomic predictors of receiving surgery, however, have not been studied. Objective: To examine the independent effect of race on receiving surgery and survival probability in patients with POSN. Study Design: A total of 1904 patients from the SEER program at the National Cancer Institute database, all diagnosed with POSN of the spinal cord, vertebral column...
Source: Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques - Category: Surgery Tags: PRIMARY RESEARCH Source Type: research
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