A Review of Podocyte Biology

Background: Podocyte biology is a developing science that promises to help improve understanding of the mechanistic nature of multiple diseases associated with proteinuria. Proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome has been linked to mechanistic dysfunctions in the renal glomerulus involving the function of podocyte epithelial cells, including podocyte foot process effacement.Summary: Developments in imaging technology are improving knowledge of the detailed structure of the human renal glomerulus and cortex. Podocyte foot processes attach themselves to the glomerular capillaries at the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) forming intercellular junctions that form slit diaphragm filtration barriers that help maintain normal renal function. Damage in this area has been implicated in glomerular disease. Injured podocytes undergo effacement whereby they lose their structure and spread out, leading to a reduction in filtration barrier function. Effacement is typically associated with the presence of proteinuria in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, minimal change disease, and diabetes. It is thought to be due to a breakdown in the actin cytoskeleton of the foot processes, complex contractile apparatuses that allow podocytes to dynamically reorganize according to changes in filtration requirements. The process of podocyte depletion correlates with the development of glomerular sclerosis and chronic kidney disease. Focal adhesion complexes that interact with the underlying GBM bind the podo...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Arterial hypertension and elevated diastolic blood pressure are associated with a risk for AS requiring surgery in subjects below 60 years of age. Strict blood pressure control in this group is strongly advocated to avoid other cardiovascular diseases correlated to hypertension. If hypertension and elevated diastolic blood pressure are risk factors for developing AS requiring surgery need further investigations. Notably, elevated fasting glucose levels were related to AS requiring surgery in older adults without concomitant CAD. PMID: 31109205 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal - Category: Cardiology Tags: Scand Cardiovasc J Source Type: research
Conclusions: Glucose fluctuation aggravates mesangial cell apoptosis, which may be partly induced by activating oxidative stress and inhibiting the AKT signaling pathway. PMID: 31110541 [PubMed]
Source: Archives of Medical Science - Category: General Medicine Tags: Arch Med Sci Source Type: research
Therapeutic Targeting of Fibrotic Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition–An Outstanding Challenge Attila Fintha1, Ákos Gasparics2, László Rosivall3 and Attila Sebe3,4* 12nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary 21st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary 3Department of Pathophysiology, International Nephrology Research and Training Center, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary 4Division of Medical Biotechnology, Paul Ehrlich Institute, Langen, Germany Back in 1995, a landmark paper was published, which shaped the fi...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions: This single-center study showed that the proportion and composition of NDRD differ among different age groups. Consistent with pathological features, some clinical indices such as hematuria and proteinuria showed different features among different age groups. PMID: 30539908 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Podocyte biology is a developing science that promises to help improve understanding of the mechanistic nature of multiple diseases associated with proteinuria. Proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome has been linked to mechanistic dysfunctions in the renal glomerulus involving the function of podocyte epithelial cells, including podocyte foot process effacement. SUMMARY: Developments in imaging technology are improving knowledge of the detailed structure of the human renal glomerulus and cortex. Podocyte foot processes attach themselves to the glomerular capillaries at the glomerular basement ...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research
Abstract Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), leading to chronic kidney disease/end-stage renal disease. Wide spectrum of nondiabetic renal diseases (NDRD) is reported in type-2 diabetes (type-2 DM). We carried out this single-center study to find clinical, laboratory, and histological features of NDRD in type-2 DM patients and to assess the prevalence of NDRD in India. A single-center retrospective study which included analysis of renal biopsies from patients with type-2 DM, performed between January 2008 and September 2016. Biopsy findings were categorized into three group...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Although a rare condition, smoking associated nodular glomerulosclerosis is a diagnosis not to be missed when dealing with a heavy smoker patient, especially when hypertensive, and sometimes associating nephrotic syndrome and this diagnosis should be considered together with much more frequent causes of nephrotic syndrome. PMID: 28002533 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology - Category: Journals (General) Tags: Rom J Morphol Embryol Source Type: research
Authors: Ando D, Hirawa N, Yasuda G Abstract It remains unclear whether the abnormal circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythm in non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) is related to hypoalbuminemia. We evaluated relationships between circadian BP rhythm and serum albumin concentration (SAC) and also examined autonomic nervous activities. Non-diabetic CKD patients with proteinuria (n = 197; 105 men, 92 women; aged 47.0 ± 13.3 years; estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 ml/min) were divided into nephrotic syndrome (NS: n = 46, SAC ≤ 30 g/l...
Source: Blood Pressure - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Press Source Type: research
Background: Although the number of patients reaching end-stage kidney disease without a biopsy-proven diagnosis is increasing, the utility of renal biopsy is still an object of debate. We analyzed epidemiological data and the main indications for renal biopsy with a systematic, evidence-based review at current literature. Summary: There is a high discrepancy observed in biopsy rates and in the epidemiology of glomerular diseases worldwide, related to the different time frame of the analyzed reports, lack of data collection, the different reference source population and the heterogeneity of indications. The evidence-based a...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Although the number of patients reaching end-stage kidney disease without a biopsy-proven diagnosis is increasing, the utility of renal biopsy is still an object of debate. We analyzed epidemiological data and the main indications for renal biopsy with a systematic, evidence-based review at current literature. SUMMARY: There is a high discrepancy observed in biopsy rates and in the epidemiology of glomerular diseases worldwide, related to the different time frame of the analyzed reports, lack of data collection, the different reference source population and the heterogeneity of indication...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research
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