A Review of Podocyte Biology

Background: Podocyte biology is a developing science that promises to help improve understanding of the mechanistic nature of multiple diseases associated with proteinuria. Proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome has been linked to mechanistic dysfunctions in the renal glomerulus involving the function of podocyte epithelial cells, including podocyte foot process effacement.Summary: Developments in imaging technology are improving knowledge of the detailed structure of the human renal glomerulus and cortex. Podocyte foot processes attach themselves to the glomerular capillaries at the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) forming intercellular junctions that form slit diaphragm filtration barriers that help maintain normal renal function. Damage in this area has been implicated in glomerular disease. Injured podocytes undergo effacement whereby they lose their structure and spread out, leading to a reduction in filtration barrier function. Effacement is typically associated with the presence of proteinuria in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, minimal change disease, and diabetes. It is thought to be due to a breakdown in the actin cytoskeleton of the foot processes, complex contractile apparatuses that allow podocytes to dynamically reorganize according to changes in filtration requirements. The process of podocyte depletion correlates with the development of glomerular sclerosis and chronic kidney disease. Focal adhesion complexes that interact with the underlying GBM bind the podo...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Publication date: September 2018Source: Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 63, Issue 2Author(s): Małgorzata Wilusz, Dominik Cieniawski, Grzegorz Wasilewski, Marek Kuźniewski, Władysław Sułowicz, Krystyna SztefkoAbstractPurposeDiabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia are frequently observed after organ transplantation. It is known that in these disorders the fatty acid metabolism is impaired. The aim of this study was to compare the fatty acid profile in the heart and renal transplant recipients who developed metabolic disorders since there is no such research available.Materials and methodsThe study included 55 patients...
Source: Advances in Medical Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
Authors: Shu W, Li H, Gong H, Zhang M, Niu X, Ma Y, Zhang X, Cai W, Yang G, Wei M, Yang N, Li Y Abstract Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by hypertension as well as proteinuria after the 20th week of pregnancy. Animal models are effective tools for studying the pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria and treatment methods of preeclampsia. The present study sought to establish and evaluate a preeclampsia-like Sprague Dawley (SD) rat model using N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Rats were randomly assigned to 7 groups (n=10 in each): Control rats and rats treated with low-dose L-NAME (40 m...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Authors: Cai X, Wang L, Wang X, Hou F Abstract Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) has been identified as a secreted protein associated with a number of cellular processes. However, the specific regulatory mechanisms of IGFBP7 on podocytes of diabetic nephropathy (DN) are yet to be elucidated. In the present study, podocytes were identified initially via an immunofluorescence assay using an anti-synaptopodin antibody. It was subsequently demonstrated that glucose promoted podocyte proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner via MTT assay. In addition, IGFBP7 expression was silenced in podoc...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
In conclusion, the data identified the IRE1α-Xbp1 signaling pathway as an essential mediator that associates EX-4 with the intracellular mechanism that inhibits ER stress and activates Akt in order to regulate β cell survival. This may provide important evidence for the use of EX-4 in treatments for type 2 diabetes. PMID: 30112049 [PubMed]
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Podocyte biology is a developing science that promises to help improve understanding of the mechanistic nature of multiple diseases associated with proteinuria. Proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome has been linked to mechanistic dysfunctions in the renal glomerulus involving the function of podocyte epithelial cells, including podocyte foot process effacement. SUMMARY: Developments in imaging technology are improving knowledge of the detailed structure of the human renal glomerulus and cortex. Podocyte foot processes attach themselves to the glomerular capillaries at the glomerular basement ...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research
Abstract Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), leading to chronic kidney disease/end-stage renal disease. Wide spectrum of nondiabetic renal diseases (NDRD) is reported in type-2 diabetes (type-2 DM). We carried out this single-center study to find clinical, laboratory, and histological features of NDRD in type-2 DM patients and to assess the prevalence of NDRD in India. A single-center retrospective study which included analysis of renal biopsies from patients with type-2 DM, performed between January 2008 and September 2016. Biopsy findings were categorized into three group...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Although a rare condition, smoking associated nodular glomerulosclerosis is a diagnosis not to be missed when dealing with a heavy smoker patient, especially when hypertensive, and sometimes associating nephrotic syndrome and this diagnosis should be considered together with much more frequent causes of nephrotic syndrome. PMID: 28002533 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology - Category: Journals (General) Tags: Rom J Morphol Embryol Source Type: research
Authors: Ando D, Hirawa N, Yasuda G Abstract It remains unclear whether the abnormal circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythm in non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) is related to hypoalbuminemia. We evaluated relationships between circadian BP rhythm and serum albumin concentration (SAC) and also examined autonomic nervous activities. Non-diabetic CKD patients with proteinuria (n = 197; 105 men, 92 women; aged 47.0 ± 13.3 years; estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 ml/min) were divided into nephrotic syndrome (NS: n = 46, SAC ≤ 30 g/l...
Source: Blood Pressure - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Press Source Type: research
Background: Although the number of patients reaching end-stage kidney disease without a biopsy-proven diagnosis is increasing, the utility of renal biopsy is still an object of debate. We analyzed epidemiological data and the main indications for renal biopsy with a systematic, evidence-based review at current literature. Summary: There is a high discrepancy observed in biopsy rates and in the epidemiology of glomerular diseases worldwide, related to the different time frame of the analyzed reports, lack of data collection, the different reference source population and the heterogeneity of indications. The evidence-based a...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Although the number of patients reaching end-stage kidney disease without a biopsy-proven diagnosis is increasing, the utility of renal biopsy is still an object of debate. We analyzed epidemiological data and the main indications for renal biopsy with a systematic, evidence-based review at current literature. SUMMARY: There is a high discrepancy observed in biopsy rates and in the epidemiology of glomerular diseases worldwide, related to the different time frame of the analyzed reports, lack of data collection, the different reference source population and the heterogeneity of indication...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research
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