Autism Spectrum Disorder: Classification, diagnosis and therapy

Publication date: Available online 12 May 2018 Source:Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Samata R. Sharma, Xenia Gonda, Frank I. Tarazi Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The new diagnostic criteria of ASD focuses on two core domains: social communication impairment and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of ASD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades, with current estimates reaching up to 1 in 36 children. Hereditary factors, parental history of psychiatric disorders, pre-term births, and fetal exposure to psychotropic drugs or insecticides have all been linked to higher risk of ASD. Several scales such as the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), The Autism Spectrum Disorder–Observation for Children (ASD-OC), The Developmental, Dimensional, and Diagnostic Interview (3di), are available to aid in better assessing the behaviors and symptoms associated with ASD. Nearly 75% of ASD patients suffer from comorbid psychiatric illnesses or conditions, which may include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, Tourette syndrome, and others. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are available for ASD. Pharmacological treatments include psychostimulants, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, and alpha-2 ad...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Study Design. Community-based, cohort study. Objective. Our aim was to determine the course of back pain in middle-aged women over a 9-year period, and assess whether obesity and physical inactivity are associated with more frequent back pain. Summary of Background Data. Back pain is the leading cause of disability worldwide. With minimal effective therapies and rising financial burden, identifying modifiable risk factors remains a key priority. Methods. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health is a cohort study of community-based, middle-aged women who completed questionnaires every 3 years between 2...
Source: Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research
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Authors: Domhardt M, Steubl L, Baumeister H Abstract This meta-review integrates the current meta-analysis literature on the efficacy of internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs) for mental disorders and somatic diseases in children and adolescents. Further, it summarizes the moderators of treatment effects in this age group. Using a systematic literature search of PsycINFO and MEDLINE/PubMed, we identified eight meta-analyses (N = 8,417) that met all inclusion criteria. Current meta-analytical evidence of IMIs exists for depression (range of standardized mean differences, SMDs = .16 to .76; 95 % CI: -.12 to ...
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In this study, we isolated a gene encoding cysteine protease of A. castellanii (AcCP) and its biochemical and functional properties were analyzed. Sequence analysis of AcCP suggests that this enzyme is a typical cathepsin L family cysteine protease, which shares similar structural characteristics with other cathepsin L-like enzymes. The recombinant AcCP showed enzymatic activity in acidic conditions with an optimum at pH 4.0. The recombinant enzyme effectively hydrolyzed human proteins including hemoglobin, albumin, immunoglobuins A and G, and fibronectin at acidic pH. AcCP mainly localized in lysosomal compartment and its...
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Publication date: Available online 12 May 2018Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Samata R. Sharma, Xenia Gonda, Frank I. TaraziAbstractAutism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The new diagnostic criteria of ASD focuses on two core domains: social communication impairment and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of ASD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades, with current estimates reaching up to 1 in 36 children. Heredita...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2018 Source:Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Samata R. Sharma, Xenia Gonda, Frank I. Tarazi Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The new diagnostic criteria of ASD focuses on two core domains: social communication impairment and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of ASD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades, with current estimates reaching up to 1 in 36 children. Hereditary f...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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