Autism Spectrum Disorder: Classification, diagnosis and therapy

Publication date: Available online 12 May 2018 Source:Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Samata R. Sharma, Xenia Gonda, Frank I. Tarazi Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The new diagnostic criteria of ASD focuses on two core domains: social communication impairment and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of ASD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades, with current estimates reaching up to 1 in 36 children. Hereditary factors, parental history of psychiatric disorders, pre-term births, and fetal exposure to psychotropic drugs or insecticides have all been linked to higher risk of ASD. Several scales such as the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), The Autism Spectrum Disorder–Observation for Children (ASD-OC), The Developmental, Dimensional, and Diagnostic Interview (3di), are available to aid in better assessing the behaviors and symptoms associated with ASD. Nearly 75% of ASD patients suffer from comorbid psychiatric illnesses or conditions, which may include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, Tourette syndrome, and others. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are available for ASD. Pharmacological treatments include psychostimulants, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, and alpha-2 ad...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Abstract Wilson's disease (WD) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder of chronic copper toxicosis. Currently, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) is widely used for WD. Here, we conducted an updated systematic review to investigate the efficacy and safety of CHM for WD and its possible mechanisms. Randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs), which compared CHM with Western conventional medicine or placebo for WD, were searched in six databases from inception to July 2017. The methodological quality was assessed using 7-item criteria from the Cochrane's collaboration tool. All the data were analyzed using Rev...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Front Pharmacol Source Type: research
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
This article presents diagnostic measures and current therapeutic approaches as well as their integration in practice in order to achieve awareness of this topic in everyday clinical practice and show the pathways of appropriate treatment. Specific multiprofessional treatment approaches which centre on the mother-child relationship demonstrate successes with regard to depression in the mothers and also on the development of a secure mother-child bond and are thus a protective factor in the development of the affected children. The now well-known effects of PPD on the fathers as well as the negative impacts of paternal depr...
Source: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde - Category: OBGYN Tags: Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd Source Type: research
Source: BMJ Comments - Category: General Medicine Source Type: forums
ConclusionThe data from both the 3D spheroid model and the Sprague Dawley model were able to indicate the potential concentration dependant hepatotoxicity of the crude X undulatum aqueous extract. The results obtained from this study also confirmed the ability of the 3D spheroid model to effectively and reliably predict the long-term outcomes of possible hepatotoxicity.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe KTC showed protective potentials of ovarian reserve and fertility to attenuate premature ovarian failure, which was relatively associated with activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: PrG patients seem to be at an even higher risk for psychiatric comorbidities compared to OMT patients. Raising awareness among practitioners for the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities among patients with gambling disorder and individuals with ADHD is crucial to initiate adequate treatment and to improve response. PMID: 30999811 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Dual Diagnosis - Category: Addiction Tags: J Dual Diagn Source Type: research
Publication date: May 2019Source: The Lancet Psychiatry, Volume 6, Issue 5Author(s): Samuel B Harvey
Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2018Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Samata R. Sharma, Xenia Gonda, Frank I. TaraziAbstractAutism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The new diagnostic criteria of ASD focuses on two core domains: social communication impairment and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of ASD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades, with current estimates reaching up to 1 in 36 children. Heredita...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2018 Source:Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Samata R. Sharma, Xenia Gonda, Frank I. Tarazi Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The new diagnostic criteria of ASD focuses on two core domains: social communication impairment and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of ASD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades, with current estimates reaching up to 1 in 36 children. Hereditary f...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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