Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Children: Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Medical Management

AbstractPurpose of ReviewPediatric chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disorder that carries significant morbidity. The diagnosis requires sinus symptoms that persist despite standard medical therapy greater than 3  months. Viral infections, allergies, and anatomic differences in children lead to chronic obstruction of the osteomeatal complex.Recent FindingsChronic rhinosinusitis as a diagnosis is a conglomeration of multiple phenotypes and endotypes. As such, the diagnosis and management are complex. New survey studies provide some consensus on prevalence and management of this disease in children.SummaryIn this review, we highlight the differential diagnosis of pediatric CRS, including non-eosinophilic/infectious variants, eosinophilic variants with and without nasal polyps, allergic fungal sinusitis, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, primary immunodeficiency, and disorders of mucociliary clearance. Further, we detail treatment options that should be considered. Finally, we feature emerging potential treatment options of CRS, including anti-immunoglobulin E, interleukin-5, and interleukin-4 receptor alpha subunit.
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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