High ‐flow oxygen therapy is safe and effective in infants with bronchiolitis
Acta Paediatrica, EarlyView.
Condition: Bronchiolitis; Respiratory Syncytial Virus Intervention: Sponsor: University Hospital Center of Martinique Enrolling by invitation
COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a beta-coronavirus which is genetically similar to SARS-CoV. Seasonal alpha- (NL63, 229E) and beta- (OC43, HKU1) coronaviruses cause common colds, croup and bronchiolitis. The transmission modes of human coronaviruses are similar, thought to be by droplet, contact and sometimes airborne routes (Van der Hoek, 2007; Wu and McGoogan, 2020). Currently, the WHO recommends surgical masks for healthcare workers (HCW) providing routine care to a COVID-19 patient (WHO, 2020), whilst the US CDC (US Centers for Disease Control, 2020a) and ECDC (US Centers for Disease Control, 2020b) recommend respirators.
Authors: Bhat R, Farrag MA, Almajhdi FN Abstract Natural killer cells play a vital role in the rejection of tumors and pathogen-infected cells. NK cells are indispensable in the early immune response against viral infections by directly targeting infected cells. Furthermore, NK cells influence adaptive immunity by driving virus-specific T-cell responses. Respiratory syncytial virus, a highly contagious virus that causes bronchiolitis, is the main reason for mortality in infants and elderly patients. RSV infection triggers both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, immunity against RSV is ephemeral due to t...
Condition: Bronchiolitis Intervention: Other: mode of noninvasive ventilation Sponsor: University Hospital, Grenoble Not yet recruiting
Of the four major solid organ transplants, median survival following lung transplantation (LTx) remains the shortest (5.7-5.8 years) with negligible improvements reported over the last decade due to high rates of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), a progressive and ultimately fatal complication limiting long-term survival in transplantees.1 Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), often dubbed the “Achilles Heel” of lung transplantation, is the most common manifestation of CLAD and is resistant to most current treatment modalities, leaving repeat lung transplantation (re-LTx) the only treatment option.
The objective for this work was to develop best methods for RSV purification, while monitoring the samples for potential contaminating proinflammatory mediators. Using polyethylene glycol concentration, and sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation, we collected samples at each step of purification and measured the values of RSV titer, total protein (µg/mL), and proinflammatory cytokines (ELISA). We analyzed the efficacy of each step in the purification procedure. In so doing, we also determined that despite optimal purification methods, a well-known chemokine in the field of allergic disease, CCL5 (RANTES), persisted wit...
CONCLUSION: The low levels of agreement between observers and the wide variability, makes the chest x-ray an unreliable diagnostic tool, and is not recommended for the assessment of infants with AB. PMID: 32467010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Conclusions. Airway instillation of LPS in allografts under immunosuppression resulted in BOS-like airway-centered inflammation and fibrosis distinct from RAS-like diffuse fibrosis, which was induced by a shortened course of immunosuppression. We propose novel animal models for BOS and RAS after lung transplantation.
Conclusions. Chronic airway injury and dysregulated repair programs are evident in airway epithelium obtained from patients with BOS, particularly with SAEC. We also show that azithromycin partially mitigates this pathology.
Conclusions. Blocking Nlrp3 inflammasome activation with MCC950 ameliorates OB lesions. The mechanistic analysis showed that MCC950 regulated the balance of Th1/Th17 and Treg cells and that this process is partially mediated by inhibition of IL-1β and IL-18. Therefore, targeting the Nlrp3 inflammasome is a promising strategy for controlling OB after lung transplantation.