Brain injury during transition in the newborn with CHD: Hazards of the preoperative period

Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common birth defect, affecting approximately 30,000 newborns each year. Nearly one third of these children require cardiac surgery during the neonatal period.1 While surgical advancements over the last several decades have improved survival, neurodevelopmental disabilities remain a significant morbidity among survivors. As a result, clinical and investigative focus has shifted from survival beyond the neonatal period toward neurologic sequelae. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies during the neonatal period in this population reveal abnormal development including microcephaly, decreased folding, and white matter immaturity.
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: 4th issue-Fetal Neurology issue Source Type: research

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This study uses Chitogel complexed with the iron chelator Deferiprone (Def) to prevent adhesion formation in a sheep laminectomy model.Material &methodsFifteen Adult Merino sheep (Ovis Aries, 1–5 yrs old) underwent laminectomy at lumbar levels 1–5 and had hydrated aluminum silicate (kaolin) applied to promote adhesion formation. Subjects were randomised to receive at each laminectomy level no-treatment control, Chitogel, Chitogel with Def at 20 mM or 40 mM or Carboxy-methyl-cellulose and Polyethylene oxide (CMC/PEO) gel. The animals were recovered for 3 months post-surgery, followed by assess...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
The aging process is characterized by the chronic inflammatory status called “inflammaging”, which shares major molecular and cellular features with the metabolism-induced inflammation called “metaflammation.” Metaflammation is mainly driven by overnutrition and nutrient excess, but other contributing factors are metabolic modifications related to the specific body composition (BC) changes occurring with age. The aging process is indeed characterized by an increase in body total fat mass and a concomitant decrease in lean mass and bone density, that are independent from general and physiological flu...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our results suggest that cognitive performance, even in patients with RRMS and very mild disability, may reflect a loss of structural connectivity. In contrast, widespread increases in functional connectivity may be the result of maladaptive processes.
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA) is routinely used in the clinic to visualize lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although GBCA reveal endothelial permeability, they fail to expose other aspects of lesion formation such as the magnitude of inflammation or tissue changes occurring at sites of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Moreover, evidence pointing to potential side effects of GBCA has been increasing. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop GBCA-independent imaging tools to monitor pathology in MS. Using MR-elastography (MRE), we previously demonstrated in both MS and ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract AIM OF THE STUDY: To compare the clinical and neuroradiological efficacy of mitoxantrone (MTX) in various forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), to ascertain whether there is a new place for the drug in the treatment regimen of the disease, as well as to determine its safety profile. CLINICAL RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY: Due to the increasing availability of new immunomodulatory therapies in multiple sclerosis (MS), there is a strong need to re-identify clinical variants and stages of the disease in which mitoxantrone (MTX) can be the most effective form of treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a re...
Source: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurol Neurochir Pol Source Type: research
In this study, we established the hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model in vivo and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model in vitro. Zea-longa score and magnetic resonance imaging were applied to verify HI-induced neuronal dysfunction and brain infarction. Subsequently, a miRNA microarray analysis was employed to profile miRNA transcriptomes. Down-regulated miR-124 was found 24 h after HIE, which corresponded to the change in PC12, SHSY5Y, and neurons after OGD. To determine the function of miR-124, mimics and lentivirus-mediated overexpression were used to regulate miR-124 in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Our results showed...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research
Conclusion: Physicians should be aware of the specific abnormalities shown on spinal cord MRI that indicate dural arteriovenous fistula, as well as the criteria for performing medullar angiography, so that the condition can be diagnosed and treated in a timely manner. Early therapeutic treatment is the principal prognosis factor. PMID: 31903063 [PubMed]
Source: Ochsner Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: Ochsner J Source Type: research
This study aimed to establish whether there is a relationship between the Monocyte to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (MHR) white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and whether it can be used as a new marker for predicting disability and severity of attack.Materials and methods: This case-control study included 201 migraine patients (114 without WMHs and 87 with WMHs) and 150 healthy control subjects. Intensity of pain was determined by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and disability rates were determined by Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS). Blood samples were take...
Source: Neurological Research - Category: Neurology Tags: Neurol Res Source Type: research
ConclusionA higher prevalence of DVAs was detected in CIS and early MS patients than reported in non-MS populations, congruent to recent literature. The DVAs were not associated with significantly altered clinical outcomes, brain atrophy rates or disease progression, and no associated higher risk of CIS patients for converting to MS was found.
Source: Clinical Neuroradiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis review underlines the importance of both the motor and somatosensory tracts for upper limb sensorimotor function in unilateral CP. However, the exact contribution of each tract requires further exploration. In addition, research on the relevance of non-motor pathways is warranted, as well as studies including other types of CP.
Source: Research in Developmental Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research
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