UCLA-led research finds vaccines against anthrax, plague and tularemia are effective in mice

Anthrax, plague and tularemia are three potent agents terrorists would be likely to use in an attack, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Each is highly and quickly lethal to humans. But there are no licensed vaccines for tularemia and plague, and although there is an anthrax vaccine, it requires a burdensome immunization schedule and has severe side effects.Now, a UCLA-led group of researchers may have found a solution that, if found to be safe and effective in humans, could protect people from all three bacteria. The team used molecular engineering to develop vaccines against each that use a common delivery method, or “single vector,” to carry protective antigens to the immune system.The findings were published May 3 in Scientific Reports.“Relying on currently available antibiotics to counter an intentional outbreak of anthrax, plague or tularemia is not a pragmatic public health plan — vaccines offer the only practical protection,” said Dr. Marcus Horwitz, the study’s senior author and a distinguished professor of medicine a nd of microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics at theDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.“Vaccines utilizing a single vector that could be administered concurrently and protect against all three pathogens would be more acceptable to people than multiple unrelated vaccines requiring different immunization schedules, and be less costly because they would be simpler to manufactu...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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This study also provides preliminary survey results regarding the population diversity ofB.anthracis in China, which will help promote the prevention and control of this important disease.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Anthrax is a fatal infectious disease which can affect animals and humans alike. Anthrax outbreaks occur periodically in animals, and they are of particular concern in herbivores, due to substantial economic consequences associated with animal death. The purpose of this study is to develop optimal control interventions that focus on vaccinating susceptible animals and/or removing infected carcasses. Our mathematical goal is to minimize the infectious animal population while reducing the cost of interventions. Optimal control interventions are derived theoretically, and numerical results with conclusions a...
Source: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology - Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Tags: Bull Math Biol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2018Source: EpidemicsAuthor(s): Martha I. Nelson, James O. Lloyd-Smith, Lone Simonsen, Andrew Rambaut, Edward C. Holmes, Gerardo Chowell, Mark A. Miller, David J. Spiro, Bryan Grenfell, Cécile ViboudAbstractDue to a combination of ecological, political, and demographic factors, the emergence of novel pathogens has been increasingly observed in animals and humans in recent decades. Enhancing global capacity to study and interpret infectious disease surveillance data, and to develop data-driven computational models to guide policy, represents one of the most cost-effective...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Anthrax, the zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is nowadays rare in northern parts of Europe including Finland and Scandinavia. Only two minor outbreaks of anthrax in 1988 ...
Source: BMC Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Abstract Epidemiologic data indicate a global distribution of anthrax outbreaks associated with certain ecosystems that promote survival and viability of Bacillus anthracis spores. Here, we characterized three anthrax outbreaks involving humans, livestock, and wildlife that occurred in the same locality in Kenya between 2014 and 2017. Clinical and epidemiologic data on the outbreaks were collected using active case finding and review of human, livestock, and wildlife health records. Information on temporal and spatial distribution of prior outbreaks in the area was collected using participatory epidemiology. The 2...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Bacillus endophyticus is a soil plant-endophytic bacterium, while B. anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. The virulence factors of B. anthracis are the plasmid encoded tripartite toxins (pXO1) and poly- γ-...
Source: BMC Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by bacteria known asBacillus anthracis. Anthrax-contaminated spores can be found naturally in soil and they commonly affect domestic and wild animals around the world. Although rare in the United States, people can get sick with anthrax if they come in contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.CDC researchers have developed a lateral flow immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies againstBacillus anthracis toxin and its components, lethal factor (LF) and protective antigen (PA). These antibodies have been screened and optimized into anti-LF and anti-PA pairs, ...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
[Monitor] Arua -Nineteen people have so far been infected following the outbreak of the deadly anthrax in Arua District.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
, Vazquez F Abstract In the period from 1915 to 1924 anthrax outbreaks were described by Bacillus anthracis due to the contamination of razor brushes that reached Europe and the United States from areas such as Japan, China or Russia. The brushes were made with badger hair, and then, to reduce the cost with horse hair and other animals. World War I supoosed that the traffics of these brushes, that passed through Europe, changed and the processes of sterilization of the same were deficient giving rise to these outbreaks, that in a percentage of 20% produced the death of the users. The impact of the fashion of weari...
Source: Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Rev Esp Quimioter Source Type: research
[East African] A South Sudanese refugee has died from anthrax at a refugee camp in northwestern Uganda, a local official said on Friday.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
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