Cognitive Features of High-functioning Adults with Autism and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

CONCLUSION: Comprehension abilities of educated adults with HFA could be higher than average in situations that do not involve social interaction. Tendency to perseveration in the presence of adequate concept formation ability may reflect the clinical symptoms of rigidity and repetitive behavior. In patients with higher levels of functioning and education, their diagnosis appears to be weakly associated with cognitive functioning. The potential roles of other variables, such as environmental factors, during development deserve further exploration in future studies. PMID: 29730869 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Turkish Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Turk Psikiyatri Derg Source Type: research

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AbstractIn humans, variations in the polysialic acid ‐producing enzyme ST8SIA2 and disturbances in the cortical inhibitory system are associated with neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorderssuch as schizophrenia and autism. In mice, the ST8SIA2‐dependent formation of polysialic acid during embryonic development is crucial for the establishment of interneuron populations of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, the spatial pattern and the neurodevelopmental mechanisms of interneuron changes caused by loss of ST8SIA2 functionhave not been fully characterized. Here, we use immunohistochemical analysis to demonstra...
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Using neurons grown from stem cells, EU-funded researchers are revealing more about mutations that lead to autism, schizophrenia and intellectual disability which researchers hope will lead to new drug targets for personalised medicine.
Source: EUROPA - Research Information Centre - Category: Research Source Type: news
Authors: Reinhard MA, Dewald-Kaufmann J, Wüstenberg T, Musil R, Barton BB, Jobst A, Padberg F Abstract Social exclusion (ostracism) is a major psychosocial factor contributing to the development and persistence of psychiatric disorders and is also related to their social stigma. However, its specific role in different disorders is not evident, and comprehensive social psychology research on ostracism has rather focused on healthy individuals and less on psychiatric patients. Here, we systematically review experimental studies investigating psychological and physiological reactions to ostracism in different res...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research
AbstractSocial exclusion (ostracism) is a major psychosocial factor contributing to the development and persistence of psychiatric disorders and is also related to their social stigma. However, its specific role in different disorders is not evident, and comprehensive social psychology research on ostracism has rather focused on healthy individuals and less on psychiatric patients. Here, we systematically review experimental studies investigating psychological and physiological reactions to ostracism in different responses of psychiatric disorders. Moreover, we propose a theoretical model of the interplay between psychiatr...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Findings largely suggest comparable levels of social cognitive impairment in ASD and SCZ, which may support the use of existing social cognitive interventions across disorders. However, future work is needed to determine whether the mechanisms underlying these shared impairments are also similar or if these common behavioral profiles may emerge via different pathways. PMID: 31576783 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research
Conclusions: The novel perspective on PTSD we present aims to serve as a basis for new experimental designs and therapeutic interventions that integrate fundamentally biological, cognitive, behavioural, and environmental factors. PMID: 31564212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Cogn Neuropsychiatry Source Type: research
r T Abstract Synaptic adhesion molecules, including presynaptic neurexins (NRXNs) and post-synaptic leucine-rich repeat transmembrane (LRRTM) proteins are important for development and maintenance of brain neuronal networks. NRXNs are probably the best characterized synaptic adhesion molecules, and one of the major presynaptic organizer proteins. The LRRTMs were found as ligands for NRXNs. Many of the synaptic adhesion proteins have been linked to neurological cognitive disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders, making them targets of interest for both biological studies, and towards drug deve...
Source: Analytical Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Anal Biochem Source Type: research
Authors: Youssef P, Nath S, Chaimowitz GA, Prat SS Abstract This review aims to consolidate the available information on use of electroretinography as a diagnostic tool in psychiatry. The electroretinogram (ERG) has been found to have diagnostic utility in cocaine withdrawal (reduced light-adapted b-wave response), major depressive disorder (reduced contrast gain in pattern ERG), and schizophrenia (reduced a- and b-wave amplitudes). This review examines these findings as well as the applicability of ERG to substance use disorder, Alzheimer's disease, autism spectrum disorder, panic disorder, eating disorders, atten...
Source: Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Psychiatry Source Type: research
DISCUSSION: Systemic reduction in GABAA receptor signaling decreased sociability and attention, a result consistent with past research demonstrating cortical GABAA receptor blockade impairs social behavior and attention. Overall, the effects of the receptor subtype selective ligands were minimal; α5-containing GABAA receptors may contribute to the attentional deficit but do not contribute to the decrease in sociability. Further research is needed to determine the GABAA receptor subunits that contribute to social behavior and attention. PMID: 31560920 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Publication date: October 2019Source: European Psychiatry, Volume 62Author(s): Peter Youssef, Siddharth Nath, Gary A Chaimowitz, Sebastien S. PratAbstractThis review aims to consolidate the available information on use of electroretinography as a diagnostic tool in psychiatry. The electroretinogram (ERG) has been found to have diagnostic utility in cocaine withdrawal (reduced light-adapted b-wave response), major depressive disorder (reduced contrast gain in pattern ERG), and schizophrenia (reduced a- and b-wave amplitudes). This review examines these findings as well as the applicability of ERG to substance use disorder, ...
Source: European Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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