Patent foramen ovale closure vs. medical therapy for cryptogenic stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

AbstractAimsThe efficacy of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure for cryptogenic stroke has been controversial. We undertook a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing device closure with medical therapy to prevent recurrent stroke for patients with PFO.Methods and resultsWe systematically identified all RCTs comparing device closure to medical therapy for cryptogenic stroke in patients with PFO. The primary efficacy endpoint was recurrent stroke, analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The primary safety endpoint was new onset atrial fibrillation (AF). Five studies (3440 patients) were included. In all, 1829 patients were randomized to device closure and 1611 to medical therapy. Across all patients, PFO closure was superior to medical therapy for prevention of stroke [hazard ratio (HR) 0.32, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.13 –0.82;P = 0.018,I2 = 73.4%]. The risk of AF was significantly increased with device closure [risk ratio (RR) 4.68, 95% CI 2.19–10.00,P
Source: European Heart Journal - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

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ACUTE embolic cerebral stroke is a major health setback for any individual, with increased mortality and morbidity. Embolus arising from cardiac chambers constitutes about 20% of ischemic strokes. Atrial fibrillation is the root cause of more than 50% of cardiogenic emboli, whereas congenital heart diseases, such as atrial septal defect, patent foramen ovale, prosthetic heart valves, rheumatic heart valvular disease, dilated cardiomyopathy, and endocarditis are predisposing factors for cardiogenic emboli.
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Case Conference Source Type: research
ACUTE embolic cerebral stroke is a major health setback for any individual, with increased mortality and morbidity. Embolus arising from cardiac chambers constitutes about 20% of ischemic strokes. Atrial fibrillation is the root cause of more than 50% of cardiogenic emboli, whereas congenital heart diseases, such as atrial septal defect, patent foramen ovale, prosthetic heart valves, rheumatic heart valvular disease, dilated cardiomyopathy, and endocarditis are predisposing factors for cardiogenic emboli.
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Case Conference Source Type: research
Abstract Cardiogenic stroke (CS), characteristic causes of which include atrial fibrillation (AF) and right-to-left shunting due to a patent foramen ovale (PFO), has a well-known tendency to be associated with a more extensive ischemic area. This may result in severe neurological damage, and require strict life-long antithrombotic therapy. However, the fact that some patients have problems complying with the requirement for extended oral antithrombotic treatment has motivated the development of alternative approaches for stroke prevention. Heart structures such as the left atrial appendage (LAA) and PFO are potent...
Source: Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: J Cardiol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Compared with drug therapy, PFO closure reduced the risk of recurrent stroke among patients with a risk score of ≥2 and reduced the incidence of serious bleeding without increasing the risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. PMID: 32394019 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Herz - Category: Cardiology Tags: Herz Source Type: research
Abstract Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is the most common anatomical cause of an interatrial shunt. It is usually asymptomatic but may cause paradoxical embolism, manifesting as stroke, myocardial infarction or visceral/peripheral ischaemia. PFO is a risk factor for stroke and may be associated with migraine with aura. New evidence suggests PFO closure reduces the risk of recurrent ischaemic stroke in a highly selected population of stroke survivors: those aged 60 years or younger with a cryptogenic stroke syndrome, a large right-to-left shunt, an atrial septal aneurysm and no evidence of atrial fibrillation. They be...
Source: Practical Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Pract Neurol Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Migraine is associated with ischemic stroke. Women are 3-fold as likely as men to have migraine, and high estrogen states increase the risk of migraine with aura (MWA), venous thromboembolism (VTE), and of stroke. We review the epidemiological and mechanistic evidence of the migraine-stroke relationship and its risk factors, with a focus on women and conditions that exclusively or predominantly affect them.  METHODS: We performed a search of MEDLINE/PubMed database, then a narrative review of the epidemiological evidence of the migraine-stroke relationship as...
Source: Headache - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Headache Source Type: research
This article discusses cryptogenic stroke and the results of recent randomized trials that can inform its evaluation and management. RECENT FINDINGS Most cryptogenic strokes appear embolic, leading to the term embolic stroke of undetermined source. It was previously thought that embolic stroke of undetermined source was a single, therapeutically relevant entity, the underlying sources of which would respond to anticoagulant therapy; however, two large randomized trials found no benefit with anticoagulation compared to antiplatelet therapy for secondary stroke prevention after embolic stroke of undetermined source. A sin...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research
Conditions:   Cryptogenic Stroke;   High Risk Patent Foramen Ovale Intervention:   Procedure: Percutaneous device closure Sponsors:   Asan Medical Center;   Medtronic Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Cryptogenic Stroke/ESUS International Working Group defined embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) as a non-lacunar brain infarct without proximal arterial stenosis or cardioembolic sources, with a clear indication for anticoagulation [1]. They presumed that as emboli are more likely to be thrombi, recurrence may be better prevented by anticoagulation rather than antiplatelet agents. Randomized trials with directly acting oral anticoagulants were suggested to test this hypothesis. But two randomised trials testing this aspect, NAVIGATE ESUS (Rivaroxaban Versus Aspirin in Secondary Prevention of Stroke and Prevention...
Source: Cardiophile MD - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Cardiology Source Type: blogs
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