Implications of improved diagnostic imaging of small nodal metastases in head and neck cancer: Radiotherapy target volume transformation and dose de-escalation.
In this report the radiobiological consequences of target volume transformation caused by modern imaging of the neck are evaluated, and theoretically derived reductions of dose in radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are proposed. The concept of target volume transformation and subsequent strategies for dose adaptation applies to many other tumor types as well. Awareness of this concept may result in new strategies for target definition and selection of dose levels with the aim to provide optimal tumor control with less toxicity. PMID: 29731161 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
In conclusion, a novel yet reliable method for the measurement of intracellular 18F-FDG via GS has been developed, and our results indicate that 18F-FDG uptake is associated with radiation and cetuximab response in HNSCC. PMID: 31620196 [PubMed]
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Ahmed Hammad, Zhao-Hong Zheng, Yang Gao, Akhileshwar Namani, Hong-Fei Shi, Xiuwen TangAbstractAimsColorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of many cytoprotective genes, plays a protective role in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have identified a specific gene-expression signature regulated by the Nrf2 pathway in lung adenocarcinoma and head-and-neck squamous cell cancer. However, the roles of Nrf2 in the development of colitis-associated colorectal...
ConclusionWe found few genetically-related as well as identical isolates among the 32 Candida strains which indicated low cross-contaminations among the patients. There was no relationship between C. albicans MLST profiles and their geographic distribution, cancer type and SAP2 gene expression. This lack of correlation was possibly due to the small understudy population; hence, finding more relevance requires studies with a higher number of samples.
ConclusionsThe study showed that radiotherapy causes skin barrier dysfunction in all patients independently of clinical radiodermatitis. The biophysical features of this dysfunction can precede clinical symptoms and they can be assessed by non-invasive and objective methods.
Conclusion: Further studies are needed in order to obtained predictive index of immunotherapy responding, aiming to select appropriately patients for this treatment. PMID: 31619066 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSION: The results of the Keynote-048 study have already led to the approval of pembrolizumab in the first line for platin-sensitive HNSCC in the USA and the expected approval in Europe will presumably change the therapeutic landscape in the long term. In the future, effective therapies for patients without a response to programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 inhibition will be needed. PMID: 31612261 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Kamińska-Winciorek G, Cybulska-Stopa B, Lugowska I, Ziobro M, Rutkowski P Abstract The introduction of immunotherapy into the treatment of cancer patients has revolutionised the oncological approach and significantly improved patient survival. The key drugs are immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), whose mechanism of action is to elicit immune response against cancer cell antigens. Three types of CPIs are currently used and approved: an anti-CTLA-4 antibody, ipilimumab; anti-PD-1 antibodies, nivolumab and pembrolizumab; and anti-PD-L1 antibodies: atezolizumab, avelumab and durvalumab. CPIs have been widely...
Conclusion: rs28362491 polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of HNCs, especially with NC. Additionally, our results showed that no association was discovered between rs2233406 polymorphism and HNCs. PMID: 31612070 [PubMed - in process]
In this study, we have developed ...
This cohort study uses the SEER-Medicare outcomes and claims database to evaluate the quality, outcomes, and costs associated with radiation therapy with or without cisplatin or cetuximab for older adults with stage III to IVB head and neck cancer.