Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: intensive care for improving neurological outcome

AbstractBackgroundAneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a life-threatening disease requiring neurocritical care. Delayed cerebral ischemia is a well-known complication that contributes to unfavorable neurological outcomes. Cerebral vasospasm has been thought to be the main cause of delayed cerebral ischemia, and although several studies were able to decrease cerebral vasospasm, none showed improved neurological outcomes. Our target is not cerebral vasospasm but improving neurological outcomes. The purpose of this review is to discuss what intensivists should know and can do to improve clinical outcomes in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.Main body of the abstractDelayed cerebral ischemia is thought to be due to not only vasospasm but also multifactorial mechanisms. Additionally, the concept of early brain injury, which occurs within the first 72  h after the hemorrhage, has become an important concern. Increasing sympathetic activity after the hemorrhage is associated with cardiopulmonary complications and poor outcomes. Serum lactate measurement may be a valuable marker reflecting the severity of sympathetic activity. The transpulmonary t hermodilution method will bring about an advanced understanding of hemodynamic management. Fever is a well-recognized symptom and targeted temperature management is an anticipated intervention. To avoid hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, performing moderate glucose control and minimizing glucose variab ility are important concepts in glyc...
Source: Journal of Intensive Care - Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

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We examined the effect of RD on early brain injury (EBI) and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) as a primary endpoint, and also explored the effect on cerebral vasospasm (CVS) as a secondary endpoint. Although RD did not exert significant effects on primary endpoint, RD signi ficantly prevented CVS and reduced SAH-induced increases in the number of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-positive endothelial cells, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and macrophage infiltration in major cerebral arteries. Moreover, RD significantly decreased the areas display ing dopamine β-hydroxylase and glial fibrillary ac...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Magnesium sulfate is an important adjuvant drug in the practice of anesthesia, with several clinical effects and a low incidence of adverse events when used at recommended doses. Introduction Magnesium is the fourth most common ion in the body, and it participates in several cellular processes, including protein synthesis, neuromuscular function and stability of nucleic acid, as well as regulating other electrolytes such as calcium and sodium. Magnesium acts as a cofactor in protein synthesis, neuromuscular function and stability and the function of nucleic acids. It is a component of adenosine 5-triph...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion A rare case of multiple ruptured aneurysms on the subarcuate artery was reported in a patient with a Borden type I dAVF at the transverse-sigmoid sinuses manifesting as subarachnoid hemorrhage. Onyx embolization of the parent artery occlusion was feasible and useful in treating this type of feeding artery aneurysm of the AICA with a dAVF. PMID: 30227805 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Interventional Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Tags: Interv Neuroradiol Source Type: research
AbstractAutonomic dysfunction is common in neuro-critical care patients and may compromise the function of various organs. Among the many diseases causing or being associated with autonomic dysfunction are traumatic brain injury, cerebrovascular diseases, epilepsy, Guillain –Barré syndrome (GBS), alcohol withdrawal syndrome, botulism and tetanus, among many others. Autonomic dysfunction may afflict various organs and may involve hyper- or hypo-activity of the sympathetic or parasympathetic system. In this short overview, we address only a small number of neuro-inten sive care diseases with autonomic dysfunctio...
Source: Clinical Autonomic Research - Category: Research Source Type: research
Abstract During the initial stages of hemorrhagic stroke, including intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, the reflex mechanisms are activated to protect cerebral perfusion, but secondary dysfunction of cerebral flow autoregulation will eventually reduce global cerebral blood flow and the delivery of metabolic substrates, leading to generalized cerebral ischemia, hypoxia, and ultimately, neuronal cell death. Cerebral blood flow is controlled by various regulatory mechanisms, including prevailing arterial pressure, intracranial pressure, arterial blood gases, neural activity, and metabolic demand. Ev...
Source: Neural Plasticity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research
Conclusion: Prompt investigation revealed a spinal arachnoid cyst in a patient with a history of intracranial SAH presenting with unexplained progressive Brown-Séquard syndrome. For cases of multiseptated and long arachnoid cyst, as in our patient, a shunting procedure is a better choice than fenestration alone.
Source: Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
Abstract Neurocardiology is an emerging specialty that addresses the interaction between the brain and the heart, that is, the effects of cardiac injury on the brain and the effects of brain injury on the heart. This review article focuses on cardiac dysfunction in the setting of stroke such as ischemic stroke, brain hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of post-stroke deaths are attributed to neurological damage, and cardiovascular complications are the second leading cause of post-stroke mortality. Accumulating clinical and experimental evidence suggests a causal relationship between brain damage...
Source: Circulation Research - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Circ Res Source Type: research
This study is aimed at exploring the protective effects of NGN against ICV-COL induced behavioral, neurological and memory deficits in rats. ICV-ICH was induced by single, unilateral intrastriatal injection of COL (1 IU in 2 µL, ICV) over 10 min. From 2nd day onwards, NGN was administered in three different doses (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg; p.o.). Animals were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests to assess behavioral changes, including neurological scoring tests (cylinder test, spontaneous motility, righting reflex, h orizontal bar test, forelimb flexion), actophotometer, rotarod, Randall Selitto and von Frey. Posts...
Source: Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
AbstractMany systemic complications follow aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and are primarily due to sympathetic nervous system activation. These complications play an important role in the overall outcome of patients. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management of systemic complications specifically associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Special focus has been made on systemic complications that occur more frequently in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage compared to other stroke subtypes and in the neurocritical care patient population. ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
ObjectiveAccurate behavioral assessments of consciousness carry tremendous significance in guiding management, but are extremely challenging in acutely brain‐injured patients. We evaluated whether electroencephalography (EEG) and multimodality monitoring parameters may facilitate assessment of consciousness in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed of 83 consecutively treated adults with subarachnoid hemorrhage. All patients were initially comatose and had invasive brain monitoring placed. Behavioral assessments were performed during daily interruption of sedation and categor...
Source: Annals of Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
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