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Minimizing Blood Loss and Transfusions in Total Knee Arthroplasty

J Knee Surg DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1648223Blood loss management is critical to positive outcomes in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Transfusions are associated with an increased risk of major and minor adverse events, length of hospitalization, and overall cost associated with surgery. Many techniques have been investigated and compared. Tranexamic acid (TXA), an antifibrinolytic drug widely known to reduce blood loss, may be a bridge to the goal of eliminating blood transfusions from TKA. Administration of TXA can be performed intravenously, topically at the knee joint, orally, or in combination. A single bolus or multiple doses have reduced total blood loss and transfusion rates consistently, safely, and cost-effectively. The uptake in use of TXA by surgeons has been slow due to concerns in patients deemed high risk for thromboembolic events. Newer evidence from studies specifically involving high-risk patients demonstrates that TXA is indeed safe in this cohort and provides benefits that greatly outweigh potential risks. Incorporation of TXA as a routine part of TKA is in the best interest of patients, health care teams, and medical institutions. TXA can be employed seamlessly with other blood saving techniques and has the capacity to increase productivity and decrease overall cost. This can be achieved by reducing the incidence of transfusion and length of stay, and the need for practices such as preoperative anemia treatment and suction drainage. [...] Th...
Source: Journal of Knee Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Special Focus Section Source Type: research

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Abstract BACKGROUND: Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a measure of anisocytosis, generally used in the differential diagnosis of anemia. Recently, RDW was associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are potential confounders on RDW values interpretation. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in RDW after RBC transfusion in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study including patients admitted to ICU requiring 1 RBC unit. We analyzed RDW values of the patients at four study ...
Source: Transfusion - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Transfusion Source Type: research
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Source: Red Cross Chat - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Blood aplastic anemia blood donation Liviya Platelet Donation platelets Source Type: news
Shagun Bhatia Shah, Ajay Kumar Bhargava, Rajiv Chawla, Amardeep PathakIndian Journal of Anaesthesia 2018 62(5):385-388 Kidd blood group alloimmunisation, though extremely rare, may produce considerable morbidity, and even mortality. Severe anaemia and impending high-output cardiac failure requiring blood transfusion should be weighed against the risk of severe transfusion reactions even with fully cross-matched blood. Kidd antibodies are a common cause of delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) since they have a tendency remain undetectable in plasma. A low -grade DHTR (second hit) was grossly amplified by a second...
Source: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Obstet Gynecol Source Type: research
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Source: Hip International - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Hip Int Source Type: research
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Source: European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology - Category: OBGYN Tags: Eur J Gynaecol Oncol Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundAnaemia among haemodialysis patients is treated with iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs). ESAs reduce requirements for blood transfusions but are also expensive and overzealous use may be associated with adverse outcomes. Recent international trends have been characterised by reduced ESA doses and a greater reliance on intravenous (IV) iron. We determined trends in prescribing patterns of ESAs and IV iron for the treatment of anaemia in two representative Irish dialysis centres and correlated with current guidelines and international trends.MethodsPatient data was accessed from the Kidney Di...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
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Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research
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Source: Chemotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
AbstractIron overload cardiomyopathy (IOC) is a major cause of death in patients with diseases associated with chronic anemia such as thalassemia or sickle cell disease after chronic blood transfusions. Associated with iron overload conditions, there is excess free iron that enters cardiomyocytes through both L- and T-type calcium channels thereby resulting in increased reactive oxygen species being generated via Haber-Weiss and Fenton reactions. It is thought that an increase in reactive oxygen species contributes to high morbidity and mortality rates. Recent studies have, however, suggested that it is iron overload in mi...
Source: Heart Failure Reviews - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
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