Haemoglobin A1c or Glycated Albumin for Diagnosis and Monitoring Diabetes: An African Perspective
AbstractDiabetes mellitus (DM) has reached epidemic proportions across the globe with the largest increases seen in sub-Saharan Africa. Those that are diagnosed are largely poorly controlled. This review summarizes the limitations of the use of glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c) in Africa and current knowledge on the utility of glycated albumin and fructosamine in African patients. The diagnosis and monitoring of DM in African patients may be compromised by associated conditions like sickle cell anaemia, chronic kidney disease and HIV infection. Glycated albumin reflects short term glycaemia and is not affected by many conditions that alter HbA1c. It can be measured enzymatically, and this review discusses methods for analysis, and discusses the advantages and limitations in specific situations with an emphasis on conditions that also affect HbA1c.
I am a rising sophomore with a 4.00 GPA and during my freshman year, I solely focused on academics. I volunteered at a hospital for about 12 hours in spring and attended a few premed club meetings. I was born and raised in India but I am a US citizen and back there, I never participated in anything outside of school so it is kind of difficult transition for me to balance everything. I have arranged to shadow a physician for next semester. I am trying to find a doctor to shadow during summer... Is it necessary to have a clinical job to gain significant clinical experience?
Conclusion: There was no difference between VTE recurrence and choice of anticoagulation in SCD patients with VTE. Bleeding events were lower for DOACs compared to VKA or LMWH.Acta Haematol
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More evidence emerges that our reliance on generic medicine from China and India puts us all at risk.
An international working group recommends a research agenda focusing on subgroups and the effects of thyroid medications on cardiovascular health.Medscape Medical News