New Technology Identifies Neurotropic AstrovirusNew Technology Identifies Neurotropic Astrovirus

A human-mink-ovine-like C astrovirus, detected using deep sequencing, may be a cause of neurologic infections in patients with impaired immune systems. Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infectious Diseases News Source Type: news

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AbstractHere we describe the identification and genetic characterization of a porcine hepe-astrovirus, or bastrovirus, obtained from feces from pigs in the United States. The genome of the new bastrovirus is 5,955 nt long and contains two open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a protein containing three domains, viral methyltransferase, RNA helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and is closely related to the RdRp of hepatitis E virus. The ORF2 protein shares similarities with the astrovirus capsid precursor protein. Although structural features of bastroviruses may resemble those of astroviruses, distinct char...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Astrovirus species members of the Mamastrovirus genus (family Astroviridae) have been increasingly recognized as neuroinvasive pathogens in various mammals, including humans, mink, cattle, sheep, and pigs. While cases of astrovirus-associated encephalitis have been reported in North America, Europe and Asia, their presence has never been documented in the Southern hemisphere. This paper describes a case of astrovirus-associated encephalitis in cattle in Uruguay that broadens the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of neuroinvasive astroviruses and provides phylogeographic evidence of viral introduction to the Ame...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: August 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 37Author(s): Valerie Cortez, Elisa Margolis, Stacey Schultz-CherryAlthough astroviruses are most commonly associated with acute gastrointestinal illness in humans, their ability to infect a broad range of hosts and cause a spectrum of disease makes them widespread and complex pathogens. The precise mechanisms that dictate the course of astrovirus disease have not been studied extensively but are likely driven by multifactorial host–microbe interactions. Recent insights from studies of animal astrovirus infections have revealed both beneficial an...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated a protocol based on aluminum adsorption –precipitation to concentrate several human enteric viruses, including norovirus genogroup I (NoV GI), NoV GII, hepatitis A virus (HAV), astrovirus (HAstV), and rotavirus (RV), with limits of detection of 4.08, 4.64, 5.46 log genomic copies (gc)/L, 3.31, and 5.41 log PCR units (PCRU)/L, respectiv ely. Furthermore, the method was applied in two independent laboratories to monitor the presence of NoV GI, NoV GII, and HAV in effluent and influent waters collected from five WWTPs at two different sampling dates. Concomitantly, a viability PMAxx-RT-q...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
In this study we aimed to verify clinical ND suspicions in poultry holdings in Egypt suffering from respiratory distress and elevated mortality, comparing two groups of ND-vaccinated poultry holdings in three governorates. Besides testing for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), samples were screened for infectious bronchits virus (IBV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) by RT-qPCR as well as by non-directed cell-culture approach on LMH-cells. Virulent NDV was confirmed only in group A (n = 16) comprising small-scale holdings. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene of 11 NDV-positive samples obtained from th...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
This study aims to investigate the occurrences and epidemiology of selected bacterial (Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp.), viral (adenovirus, norovirus GI and GII, and astrovirus), and parasitic (Entamoeba spp. and Giardia spp.) agents in stool samples from 155 child diarrheal cases enrolled between March and August 2017, in a hospital-based cross-sectional study in Thi-Qar, southeastern Iraq. Using molecular techniques and sequence-based characterization, adenovirus was the most frequently detected enteropathogen (53/155 (34.2%)), followed by Salmonella spp. (23/155 (14.8%)), Entamoeba spp. (21/155 (13.5%)), and Camp...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The diarrhea severity reduction in children provides evidence that the rotavirus vaccination program in the northwest of Mexico has been successful, even among children infected by the rotavirus emergent strain G12, however, norovirus resulted as the leading severe gastroenteritis-causing agent in children with rotavirus vaccine. PMID: 31063865 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Abstract Acute Viral Gastroenteritis: Viruses Other Than Norovirus Abstract. Norovirus is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis. Norovirus is highly contagious, thus outbreaks of norovirus in hospitals and long-term care facilities are feared. Usually, stool samples of patients with a potentially viral gastroenteritis are first checked for the presence of norovirus. In recent years, sapovirus and astrovirus were increasingly reported as cause of acute gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of acute viral gastroenteritis caused by sapovirus or astrovirus are hardly distinguishable from those caused by norovirus beca...
Source: Praxis - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Praxis (Bern 1994) Source Type: research
In this study, a novel astrovirus/hepevirus-like virus with +ssRNA genome (Er/SZAL5/HUN/2011, MK450332) was serendipitously identified and characterized from 3 (8.5%) out of 35 European roller (Coracias garrulus) faecal samples by RT-PCR in Hungary. The complete genome of Er/SZAL5/HUN/2011 (MK450332) is 8402 nt-long and potentially composed three non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs): ORF1a (4449 nt/1482aa), ORF1b (1206 nt/401aa) and ORF2 (1491 nt/496aa). The ORF1ab has an astrovirus-like genome organization containing the non-structural conserved elements (TM, CC, NLS, VPg) and enzyme residues (trypsine-like ...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
This study shows for the first time the effects of porcine astrovirus infection on conventional newly-weaning piglets. Keywords: porcine astrovirus; newly-weaned piglets. PMID: 30879318 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
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