Henipavirus Infection: Natural History and the Virus-Host Interplay

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe review summarizes the history of the emergence of the Henipviruses, provides a general introduction of their molecular biology and the efforts to develop antiviral treatment strategies, including the successful development of a veterinary vaccine.Recent FindingsParamyxoviridae, genusHenipavirus comprises emerging pathogens detected in Southeast Asia, Australia and Africa. Henipaviruses are enveloped with non-segmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA molecules and are distinguished from other Paramyxoviruses by a substantially larger RNA genome. Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are the causative agents of zoonotic disease outbreaks in Australia and Asia, respectively, and are indigenous to fruit bats. HeV and NiV can cause severe diseases with neurological and respiratory manifestations in humans and intermediate hosts but do not cause a disease in the natural bat host. The primary spill-over reservoir for humans to come into contact with HeV in Australia and NiV in Malaysia are horses and pigs, respectively. Direct bat-to-human transmissions are reported from NiV infections in Bangladesh. The life cycle of the Henipaviruses includes replication of the RNA genome in the cytoplasm, a nuclear phase of the viral matrix protein, and assembly and budding of infectious virions at the cell membrane. To prevent the establishment of an antiviral cellular state, Henipaviruses encode structural and non-structural viral proteins able to antagonize...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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SUMMARY: When preparing for the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and its effects on the CNS, radiologists should be familiar with neuroimaging appearances in past zoonotic infectious disease outbreaks. Organisms that have crossed the species barrier from animals to humans include viruses such as Hendra, Nipah, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, and influenza, as well as bacteria and others. Brain CT and MR imaging findings have included cortical abnormalities, microinfarction in the white matter, large-vessel occlusion, and features of meningitis. In particular, the high sensitivity of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in det...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: ADULT BRAIN Source Type: research
A recent outbreak of Nipah virus (NiV) in India has caused 17 deaths among people living in districts of Kerala state. Its zoonotic nature as well as high rate of human-to-human transmission has led researchers worldwide to work high for understanding the different aspects of the NiV. We performed a codon usage analysis based on publicly available nucleotide sequences of NiV and its host adaptation along with other members of genus Henipavirus in ten hosts. NiV genome encodes nine open reading frames; and overall, no significant bias in codon usage was observed. Aromaticity of proteins had no impact on codon usage. An anal...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study investigated the presence of Henipa- and related viruses in the Egyptian Rousette bat in South Africa as well as determining potential excretion in urine over time.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: 19.007 Source Type: research
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 34Author(s): Lin-Fa Wang, Danielle E AndersonIn the last two decades, several high impact zoonotic disease outbreaks have been linked to bat-borne viruses. These include SARS coronavirus, Hendra virus and Nipah virus. In addition, it has been suspected that ebolaviruses and MERS coronavirus are also linked to bats. It is being increasingly accepted that bats are potential reservoirs of a large number of known and unknown viruses, many of which could spillover into animal and human populations. However, our knowledge into basic bat biology and immuno...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of the nucleoside analog 4′-azidocytidine (4′N3-C, R1479) and its 2′-monofluoro- and 2′-difluoro-modified analogs (2′F-4′N3-C and 2′diF-4′N3-C) against representative paramyxoviruses (Nipah virus, Hendra virus, measles virus, and human parainfluenza virus 3) and filoviruses (Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Ravn virus). We observed enhanced antiviral activity against paramyxoviruses with both 2′diF-4′N3-C and 2′F-4′N3-C compared to R1479. On the other hand, while R1479 and 2′diF-4′N3-C inhibit...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of the nucleoside analog 4'-azidocytidine (4'N3-C, R1479) and its 2'-monofluoro- and 2'-difluoro-modified analogs (2'F-4'N3-C and 2'diF-4'N3-C) against representative paramyxoviruses (Nipah virus, Hendra virus, measles virus, and human parainfluenza virus 3) and filoviruses (Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Ravn virus). We observed enhanced antiviral activity against paramyxoviruses with both 2'diF-4'N3-C and 2'F-4'N3-C compared to R1479. On the other hand, while R1479 and 2'diF-4'N3-C inhibited filoviruses similarly to paramyxoviruses, we observed 10-fold lower filovirus inh...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Anne L. Hotard, Biao He, Stuart T. Nichol, Christina F. Spiropoulou, Michael K. Lo The henipaviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses which have caused fatal outbreaks of encephalitis and respiratory disease in humans. Despite the availability of a licensed equine Hendra virus vaccine and a neutralizing monoclonal antibody shown to be efficacious against henipavirus infections in non-human primates, there remains no approved therapeutics or vaccines for human use. To explore the possibility of de...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract The henipaviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses which have caused fatal outbreaks of encephalitis and respiratory disease in humans. Despite the availability of a licensed equine Hendra virus vaccine and a neutralizing monoclonal antibody shown to be efficacious against henipavirus infections in non-human primates, there remains no approved therapeutics or vaccines for human use. To explore the possibility of developing small-molecule nucleoside inhibitors against henipaviruses, we evaluated the antiviral activity of 4'-azidocytidine (R1479), a drug previously...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
Authors: Enchéry F, Horvat B Abstract Hendra virus and Nipah virus (NiV) are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses, from henipavirus genus, that have emerged in late 1990s in Australia and South-East Asia, respectively. Since their initial identification, numerous outbreaks have been reported, affecting both domestic animals and humans, and multiple rounds of person-to-person NiV transmission were observed. Widely distributed fruit bats from Pteropodidae family were found to be henipavirus natural reservoir. Numerous studies have reported henipavirus seropositivity in pteropid bats, including bats in Af...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research
by Raina K. Plowright, Alison J. Peel, Daniel G. Streicker, Amy T. Gilbert, Hamish McCallum, James Wood, Michelle L. Baker, Olivier Restif Progress in combatting zoonoses that emerge from wildlife is often constrained by limited knowledge of the biology of pathogens within reservoir hosts. We focus on the host–pathogen dynamics of four emerging viruses associated with bats: Hendra, Nipah, Ebola, and Marburg viruses. Spillover of ba t infections to humans and domestic animals often coincides with pulses of viral excretion within bat populations, but the mechanisms driving such pulses are unclear. Three hypotheses dom...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
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