Pink1 −/− Rats Show Early-Onset Swallowing Deficits and Correlative Brainstem Pathology

AbstractParkinson disease (PD) compromises oropharyngeal swallowing, which negatively affects quality of life and contributes to aspiration pneumonia. Dysphagia often begins early in the disease process, and does not improve with standard therapies. As a result, swallowing deficits are undertreated in the PD population. ThePink1−/− rat is used to model PD, and demonstrates widespread brainstem neuropathology in combination with early-onset sensorimotor dysfunction; however, to date, swallowing behaviors have not been evaluated. To test the hypothesis thatPink1−/− rats demonstrate early-onset differences in swallowing, we analyzed within-subject oropharyngeal swallowing using videofluoroscopy.Pink1−/− and wildtype (WT) controls at 4 (Pink1−/−n = 16, WT = 16) and 8 (Pink1−/−n = 12, WT = 12) months of age were tested. The average and maximum bolus size was significantly increased inPink1−/− rats at both 4 and 8 months. Bolus average velocity was increased at 8 months for all animals; yet,Pink1−/− animals had significantly increased velocities compared to WT at 8 months. The data show a significant reduction in mastication rate forPink1−/− rats at 8 months suggesting the onset of oromotor dysfunction begins at this time point. Relationships among swallowing variables and neuropathological findings, such as incr...
Source: Dysphagia - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

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Pneumonia is a common cause of respiratory infection, accounting for more than 800,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually. Presenting symptoms of pneumonia are typically cough, pleuritic chest pain, fever, fatigue, and loss of appetite. Children and the elderly have different presenting features of pneumonia, which include headache, nausea, abdominal pain, and absence of one or more of the prototypical symptoms. Knowledge of local bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility and resistance profiles is the key for effective pharmacologic selection and treatment of pneumonia.
Source: Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice - Category: Primary Care Authors: Source Type: research
Introduction: We hypothesized that aromatic microbial metabolites (AMM), such as phenyllactic (PhLA), p-hydroxyphenylacetic (p-HPhAA), and p-hydroxyphenyllactic (p-HPhLA) acids, contribute to the pathogenesis of septic shock. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data of patients with community-acquired pneumonia were obtained on intensive care unit admission and the next day. Patients were divided into two groups based on septic shock presence or absence. The levels of AMM (PhLA, p-HPhAA, p-HPhLA, and their sum, ∑3AMM), catecholamine metabolites (3,4-dihydroxymandelic [DHMA], 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic [DOPAC], and hom...
Source: Shock - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research
Conclusions: Intraperitoneal LPS injection in ApoE3*Leiden mice triggers a profound systemic inflammatory response, but does not increase atherosclerotic plaque area or inflammatory cell density. This model of LPS-induced inflammation in atherosclerosis-prone mice argues against intraplaque alterations as an explanation for acute inflammation-induced cardiovascular event risk.
Source: Shock - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research
In this study, in vitro plantlets and callus of Silybum marianum were exploited as a stabilising agent for the synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs using zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide as a substitute for chemical method. The contemporary investigation defines the synthesis of ZnO NPs prepared by chemical and bio-extract-assisted methods. Characterisation techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray were used to confirm the synthesis. Although chemical and bio-assisted methods are suitable choices for NPs synthesis, the bio-assisted ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Published on 2018-08-13 17:38:54
Source: Journal of the Belgian Society of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsUnilateral pulmonary edema is a completely reversible condition with good patient outcome if it is suspected early and treated early. Even in the absence of readily available echocardiogram skills, a clinical examination is of paramount importance in making a clinical decision in low-resource settings to reduce mortality.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Conclusion: Ureteroscopy is a safe and effective method of managing urolithiasis in elderly patients. Although most patients are discharged within 24-hours, consideration needs to be made for patients where social circumstances can impact their discharge planning.
Source: International Braz J Urol - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Preoperative oral care by a dentist may help reduce postoperative complications in patients who undergo cancer surgery, according to a newBJS (British Journal of Surgery) study.Of 509,179 patients studied, 16% received preoperative oral care from a dentist. When a surgeon requested that a dentist provide preoperative oral care to a patient with cancer, the dentist checked the patient's oral condition, provided professional tooth cleaning, taught the patient self-cleaning methods for the teeth, and provided any treatment needed. In the study, 15,724 patients (3.09%) developed postoperative pneumonia and 1734 (0.34%) died wi...
Source: Dental Technology Blog - Category: Dentistry Source Type: news
Chlamydophila pneumoniae (CP) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) patients could require intensive care unit (ICU) admission for acute respiratory failure.
Source: Annals of Intensive Care - Category: Intensive Care Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
ConclusionNutrition therapy had no statistically significant effect on ADL. However, it reduced the incidence of infections. More high-quality trials are warranted to clarify the effects of nutrition therapy in older stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation.
Source: The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
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