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Pink1 −/− Rats Show Early-Onset Swallowing Deficits and Correlative Brainstem Pathology

AbstractParkinson disease (PD) compromises oropharyngeal swallowing, which negatively affects quality of life and contributes to aspiration pneumonia. Dysphagia often begins early in the disease process, and does not improve with standard therapies. As a result, swallowing deficits are undertreated in the PD population. ThePink1−/− rat is used to model PD, and demonstrates widespread brainstem neuropathology in combination with early-onset sensorimotor dysfunction; however, to date, swallowing behaviors have not been evaluated. To test the hypothesis thatPink1−/− rats demonstrate early-onset differences in swallowing, we analyzed within-subject oropharyngeal swallowing using videofluoroscopy.Pink1−/− and wildtype (WT) controls at 4 (Pink1−/−n = 16, WT = 16) and 8 (Pink1−/−n = 12, WT = 12) months of age were tested. The average and maximum bolus size was significantly increased inPink1−/− rats at both 4 and 8 months. Bolus average velocity was increased at 8 months for all animals; yet,Pink1−/− animals had significantly increased velocities compared to WT at 8 months. The data show a significant reduction in mastication rate forPink1−/− rats at 8 months suggesting the onset of oromotor dysfunction begins at this time point. Relationships among swallowing variables and neuropathological findings, such as incr...
Source: Dysphagia - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

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Authors: Nishino T PMID: 29780144 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Authors: Asato Y, Kamitani T, Ootsuka K, Kuramochi M, Nakanishi K, Shimada T, Takahashi T, Misu T, Aoki M, Fujihara K, Kawabata Y Abstract We herein report the case of a 76-year old man with aquaporin-4-Immunoglobulin-G (AQP4-IgG)-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), in whom transient interstitial pulmonary lesions developed at the early stage of the disease. Chest X-ray showed multiple infiltrative shadows in both upper lung fields, and computed tomography revealed abnormal shadows distributed randomly in the lungs. Surgical lung biopsy showed features of unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia, ...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Conclusion Serotype data from this study helped in accurate estimation of PCV-13 and PPV-23 protective coverage against serotypes causing IPD in India as 58.7% (95% CI: 53.8, 63.4) and 67.4% (95% CI: 62.7, 71.8) respectively. Penicillin non-susceptibility in meningeal IPD cases is 27.4%. Empirical therapy for meningeal IPD must be cephalosporin in combination with vancomycin since cefotaxime non-susceptibility in meningeal IPD is 9.9%.
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Source: Notes from Dr. RW - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: infectious disease pulmonary Source Type: blogs
We present an autopsy report of Achromobacter endocarditis involving the native valves in a woman with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis (HD).
Source: Cardiovascular Pathology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Despite advances in treatment and prevention, the pneumococcus continues to be a dominant cause of severe pneumonia and sepsis and of otitis media, sinusitis, and nonbacteremic pneumonia. Lewnard and colleagues (Infect Immun 86:e00727-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00727-17) used a unique data set of nasopharyngeal and middle ear fluid samples to provide further insight into the progression of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization to disease. They report the comparative rate of progression from colonization to otitis media by serotype, providing insight into how conjugate vaccines that do not reduce the overall p...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Nabriva Therapeutics announced positive results Monday from its second large-scale, late-stage clinical trial of its experimental therapy for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). The biopharmaceutical company, which has operations in Dublin, Ireland and King of Prussia, plans to file a new drug application for the therapy – called Lefamulin – with the Food and Drug Administration during the fourth quarter of this year. Nabriva’s stock surged by more than 20 percent in pre-market…
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Source Type: news
(Reuters) - Nabriva Therapeutics Plc's antibiotic drug to treat a common form of pneumonia met the main goal of a key clinical trial, but concerns over its side effects sent the drug developer's shares down 13 percent on Monday.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
Condition:   Pneumonia, Mycoplasma Interventions:   Drug: Doxycycline;   Drug: Azithromycin Sponsor:   National Taiwan University Hospital Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
(Reuters) - Nabriva Therapeutics Plc said on Monday its antibiotic to treat adults with a common form of pneumonia met the main goal of a second late-stage study, putting the company on track to file for the drug's approval in the fourth quarter of 2018.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
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