UCLA research may explain some causes of infertility and miscarriage

A new study in the journal Nature Cell Biology has uncovered information about a key stage that human embryonic cells must pass through just before an embryo implants. The research, led by UCLA biologist Amander Clark, could help explain certain causes of infertility and spontaneous miscarriage.Infertility affects around 10 percent of the U.S. population, and roughly 15 to 20 percent of all pregnancies in the U.S. end in miscarriage. In many cases, the causes of infertility and miscarriage are unknown.A team led by Clark, a UCLA professor of molecular cell and developmental biology and member of the  Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA, set out to find how epigenomic changes — non-genetic influences on gene expression — in human embryonic stem cells could explain why some embryos are not viable.They started by analyzing cells within the early embryo; these cells are pluripotent, meaning that they can turn into any cell within the human body.“For many years, researchers thought that human pluripotency was a single state,” Clark said. “However, over the past three years, the field has discovered that human pluripotency involves at least two major states, and as embryos grow the stem cells pass through these two different states of pluripotency on the way to the embryo establishing a pregnancy.”After a human embryo is fertilized and before it implants in the uterine lining, cells in the embr...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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ConclusionsOur small-scale experimental study, in which PanoptiqTM was used in the diagnosis of cases that were difficult to diagnose definitively by breast FNA, revealed a positive CB score by every reviewer and the representative diagnosis showed a significant CB. The study suggested that PanoptiqTM could be used for cytopathology consultation.
Source: Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Authors: Liu B, Yang XF, Liang XP, Wang L, Shao MM, Han WX, Wu YH Abstract OBJECTIVE: To explore the expressions of miR-132 in patients with chronic hepatitis B, posthepatitic cirrhosis and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to investigate its possible mechanism affecting the function of the body. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 125 patients with HBV, there were 44 cases of chronic hepatitis, 42 cases of liver cirrhosis and 39 cases of liver cancer. Their liver function and HBV-deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV-DNA) viral load as well as the expressions of micro ribonucleic acid-132 (miR-1...
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide novel insights into the role of miR-3196 in breast cell proliferation and apoptosis. Meanwhile, this study suggests that miR-3196 can serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for breast cancer. PMID: 30556879 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We showed that miR-1179 was a tumor suppressor that may serve as a novel potential prognostic biomarker or molecular therapeutic target for BC. PMID: 30556878 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
AbstractAdult survivors of childhood cancers are more prone to developing poor reproductive and obstetrical outcomes than their siblings and the general population as a result of previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation during childhood. Chemotherapy drugs exert cytotoxic effects systemically and therefore can damage the ovaries, leading to infertility, premature ovarian failure, and, to a lesser extent, spontaneous abortions. They have very limited or no deleterious effects on the uterus that can be recognized clinically. By contrast, radiation is detrimental to both the ovaries and the uterus, thereby causing a gr...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review, Gynecologic Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract Adult survivors of childhood cancers are more prone to developing poor reproductive and obstetrical outcomes than their siblings and the general population as a result of previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation during childhood. Chemotherapy drugs exert cytotoxic effects systemically and therefore can damage the ovaries, leading to infertility, premature ovarian failure, and, to a lesser extent, spontaneous abortions. They have very limited or no deleterious effects on the uterus that can be recognized clinically. By contrast, radiation is detrimental to both the ovaries and the uterus, thereby ca...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research
By Katrina Mark, MD 1. Fertility naturally declines as we age That alone doesn’t mean you should start to worry. The general advice I give a woman is if she has been trying to become pregnant for a full year with no luck, she might consider a fertility evaluation. For a woman over age 35, she might consider it after six months. If a woman is younger and has irregular periods, it’s likely she isn’t regularly ovulating, so she might want to be evaluated sooner. 2. Sometimes there’s a reason for infertility – and sometimes, there’s not There are some things we know cause infertility. About...
Source: Life in a Medical Center - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Health Tips Women's Health fertility Katrina Mark obgyn UMMC Source Type: blogs
Healthcare is a human right. No one should be denied the opportunity to see a doctor because of how much money is in their pocket or where they live. Our loved ones shouldn’t die from easily curable diseases simply because they can’t afford medicine. Black lives matter. Why are these controversial statements? Why are we living under an administration that thinks it is politically expedient to rip away our access to basic healthcare? Yes, denying people access to healthcare is the perfect way to accomplish your goals if your goals include severely restricting the flow of health resources to marginalized commu...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Tanmoy Mukherjee, MD Associate Director, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Mount Sinai Health System; Co-Director, Reproductive Medicine Associates of New York; Assistant Clinical Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai When prospective parents who are unable to conceive a child on their own consult me for assistance, I am excited to help them build their families. But for them, dealing with the challenges of infertility can be as stressful as having cancer. Fortunately, the latest advances in in vitro fertilization (IVF) are giving them a ...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
I knew I was pregnant before I even missed my period. I was supremely irritated with myself. Aged 30 and recently separated from the man I'd been with for the past 14 years, I couldn't help but laugh bitterly at the cosmic irony that, in all those years, the one time we managed to slip was just as we'd begun our divorce proceedings. In a perfect storm of upheaval, loss and longing, we had made a human error of miscalculation followed by a false assumption of improbability. When I walked back into the bathroom of my recently purged and lonesome Brooklyn apartment and saw my intuition confirmed with the word "pregnant&...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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