UCLA research may explain some causes of infertility and miscarriage

A new study in the journal Nature Cell Biology has uncovered information about a key stage that human embryonic cells must pass through just before an embryo implants. The research, led by UCLA biologist Amander Clark, could help explain certain causes of infertility and spontaneous miscarriage.Infertility affects around 10 percent of the U.S. population, and roughly 15 to 20 percent of all pregnancies in the U.S. end in miscarriage. In many cases, the causes of infertility and miscarriage are unknown.A team led by Clark, a UCLA professor of molecular cell and developmental biology and member of the  Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA, set out to find how epigenomic changes — non-genetic influences on gene expression — in human embryonic stem cells could explain why some embryos are not viable.They started by analyzing cells within the early embryo; these cells are pluripotent, meaning that they can turn into any cell within the human body.“For many years, researchers thought that human pluripotency was a single state,” Clark said. “However, over the past three years, the field has discovered that human pluripotency involves at least two major states, and as embryos grow the stem cells pass through these two different states of pluripotency on the way to the embryo establishing a pregnancy.”After a human embryo is fertilized and before it implants in the uterine lining, cells in the embr...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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Authors: Kim SE, Lee SJ, Cha JY, Yi SW, Kim TS, Cho IL, Kwak JY, Oh KH Abstract Colon cancer is very rarely accompanied by tumor thrombosis of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV). A 46-year-old patient had been diagnosed with SMV tumor thrombosis related to colon cancer without hepatic metastasis and underwent right hemicolectomy with SMV tumor thrombectomy. Tumor thrombosis was pathologically confirmed as metastatic colon cancer. There has been no recurrence for 12 months with 12 cycles of adjuvant-chemotherapy. PMID: 30992420 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Endoscopy - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Clin Endosc Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Pathology - Research and PracticeAuthor(s): Xiao-Jie Chen, Ya-Qin Tan, Na Zhang, Ming-Jing He, Gang ZhouAbstractObjectiveIn recent years, monoclonal antibodies targeting programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have become a promising cancer immunotherapy. However, the role of PD-L1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs), including oral leukoplakia (OLK), remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression level of PD-L1 in OSCC and OPMDs, and examine its relationship with CD8 expression ...
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
In this study, vaginal microbiome was divided in five biotypes, being four of them dominated by lactobacilli and considered as healthy (pH 5.0) and higher diversity. In a healthy status, microbiota is balanced and forms a stable ecological unit dominated by Lactobacillus species, which fixes pH below 5.0 and controls non-desirable groups. In a pathogenic process, the microbiome shifts to a dysbiotic state, in which lactobacilli drop, pH is increased to values above 4.5 and other groups such as Gardnerella, Atopobium, Prevotella, and Streptococcus, among others, can overgrow (Srinivasan et al., 2012). Short chain fatty acid...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Di Che1†, Yanfang Yang2†, Yufen Xu1†, Zhenzhen Fang3, Lei Pi1, LanYan Fu1, Huazhong Zhou1, Yaqian Tan1, Zhaoliang Lu1, Li Li4, Qihua Liang5, Qingshan Xuan4* and Xiaoqiong Gu1,5,6* 1Department of Clinical Biological Resource Bank, Guangzhou Institute of Pediatrics, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China 2Department of Prenatal Diagnosis, Maoming People’s Hospital, Maoming, China 3Program of Molecular Medicine, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Hospital, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China 4...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
AbstractAdult survivors of childhood cancers are more prone to developing poor reproductive and obstetrical outcomes than their siblings and the general population as a result of previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation during childhood. Chemotherapy drugs exert cytotoxic effects systemically and therefore can damage the ovaries, leading to infertility, premature ovarian failure, and, to a lesser extent, spontaneous abortions. They have very limited or no deleterious effects on the uterus that can be recognized clinically. By contrast, radiation is detrimental to both the ovaries and the uterus, thereby causing a gr...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review, Gynecologic Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract Adult survivors of childhood cancers are more prone to developing poor reproductive and obstetrical outcomes than their siblings and the general population as a result of previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation during childhood. Chemotherapy drugs exert cytotoxic effects systemically and therefore can damage the ovaries, leading to infertility, premature ovarian failure, and, to a lesser extent, spontaneous abortions. They have very limited or no deleterious effects on the uterus that can be recognized clinically. By contrast, radiation is detrimental to both the ovaries and the uterus, thereby ca...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research
By Katrina Mark, MD 1. Fertility naturally declines as we age That alone doesn’t mean you should start to worry. The general advice I give a woman is if she has been trying to become pregnant for a full year with no luck, she might consider a fertility evaluation. For a woman over age 35, she might consider it after six months. If a woman is younger and has irregular periods, it’s likely she isn’t regularly ovulating, so she might want to be evaluated sooner. 2. Sometimes there’s a reason for infertility – and sometimes, there’s not There are some things we know cause infertility. About...
Source: Life in a Medical Center - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Health Tips Women's Health fertility Katrina Mark obgyn UMMC Source Type: blogs
Healthcare is a human right. No one should be denied the opportunity to see a doctor because of how much money is in their pocket or where they live. Our loved ones shouldn’t die from easily curable diseases simply because they can’t afford medicine. Black lives matter. Why are these controversial statements? Why are we living under an administration that thinks it is politically expedient to rip away our access to basic healthcare? Yes, denying people access to healthcare is the perfect way to accomplish your goals if your goals include severely restricting the flow of health resources to marginalized commu...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Tanmoy Mukherjee, MD Associate Director, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Mount Sinai Health System; Co-Director, Reproductive Medicine Associates of New York; Assistant Clinical Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai When prospective parents who are unable to conceive a child on their own consult me for assistance, I am excited to help them build their families. But for them, dealing with the challenges of infertility can be as stressful as having cancer. Fortunately, the latest advances in in vitro fertilization (IVF) are giving them a ...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
I knew I was pregnant before I even missed my period. I was supremely irritated with myself. Aged 30 and recently separated from the man I'd been with for the past 14 years, I couldn't help but laugh bitterly at the cosmic irony that, in all those years, the one time we managed to slip was just as we'd begun our divorce proceedings. In a perfect storm of upheaval, loss and longing, we had made a human error of miscalculation followed by a false assumption of improbability. When I walked back into the bathroom of my recently purged and lonesome Brooklyn apartment and saw my intuition confirmed with the word "pregnant&...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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