UCLA research may explain some causes of infertility and miscarriage

A new study in the journal Nature Cell Biology has uncovered information about a key stage that human embryonic cells must pass through just before an embryo implants. The research, led by UCLA biologist Amander Clark, could help explain certain causes of infertility and spontaneous miscarriage.Infertility affects around 10 percent of the U.S. population, and roughly 15 to 20 percent of all pregnancies in the U.S. end in miscarriage. In many cases, the causes of infertility and miscarriage are unknown.A team led by Clark, a UCLA professor of molecular cell and developmental biology and member of the  Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA, set out to find how epigenomic changes — non-genetic influences on gene expression — in human embryonic stem cells could explain why some embryos are not viable.They started by analyzing cells within the early embryo; these cells are pluripotent, meaning that they can turn into any cell within the human body.“For many years, researchers thought that human pluripotency was a single state,” Clark said. “However, over the past three years, the field has discovered that human pluripotency involves at least two major states, and as embryos grow the stem cells pass through these two different states of pluripotency on the way to the embryo establishing a pregnancy.”After a human embryo is fertilized and before it implants in the uterine lining, cells in the embr...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: Journal of Molecular LiquidsAuthor(s): H. Abramczyk, A. Imiela, A. ƚliwiƄskaAbstractLipids play an important role in many cellular processes. Raman-driven microscopy is one of the most powerful technique for analyzing the properties of lipids in cellular compartments offering lipid compositional mapping and more precise, faster, simpler, and nondestructive measurements. Recent advances in Raman imaging (RI) have greatly progressed lipidomic analysis, such as lipid droplet content, lipid phenotype, fatty acid composition, spatial distribution and drug treatment res...
Source: Journal of Molecular Liquids - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: Journal of Molecular LiquidsAuthor(s): Mostafa Zamani, Ehsan Naderi, Mozhgan Aghajanzadeh, Mahmoud Naseri, Ali Sharafi, Hossein DanafarAbstractThe present paper aimed to synthesize, using thermal-treatment method, a variety of Co1-XZnxFe2O4-based nanocarriers (NCs) as Dual-controlled and targeted drug delivery systems (DDS) and provide a new structure as NCs suitable for the loading and pH-responsive characteristics of the chemotherapeutic curcumin (CUR). To study the structure, surface morphology, surface charge and magnetic properties of NCs, X-ray diffraction (XR...
Source: Journal of Molecular Liquids - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Paola D'Andrea, Marina Sciancalepore, Katerina Veltruska, Paola Lorenzon, Antonella BandieraAbstractThe biochemical properties of muscle extracellular matrix are essential for stem cell adhesion, motility, proliferation and myogenic development. Recombinant elastin-like polypeptides are synthetic polypeptides that, besides maintaining some properties of the native protein, can be tailored by fusing bioactive sequences to their C-terminal. Our laboratory synthesized several Human Elastin-Like Pol...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Cell Research - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
This study examined the role of H2S in drug resistance in liver cancer cells.Materials and methodsHuman primary hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and doxorubicin (Dox)-resistant cells were used in this study. Cell survival was analyzed by MTT, Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining and clonogenic assay. Western blotting was used for analysis of protein expression, and immunoprecipitation was used to determine interactions of LXR/RXR.Key findingsThe expression of H2S-generating enzyme cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) was inhibited by doxorubicin treatment in HepG2 cells, and H2S sensitized Dox-inhibited cell survi...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
AbstractAdult survivors of childhood cancers are more prone to developing poor reproductive and obstetrical outcomes than their siblings and the general population as a result of previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation during childhood. Chemotherapy drugs exert cytotoxic effects systemically and therefore can damage the ovaries, leading to infertility, premature ovarian failure, and, to a lesser extent, spontaneous abortions. They have very limited or no deleterious effects on the uterus that can be recognized clinically. By contrast, radiation is detrimental to both the ovaries and the uterus, thereby causing a gr...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review, Gynecologic Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract Adult survivors of childhood cancers are more prone to developing poor reproductive and obstetrical outcomes than their siblings and the general population as a result of previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation during childhood. Chemotherapy drugs exert cytotoxic effects systemically and therefore can damage the ovaries, leading to infertility, premature ovarian failure, and, to a lesser extent, spontaneous abortions. They have very limited or no deleterious effects on the uterus that can be recognized clinically. By contrast, radiation is detrimental to both the ovaries and the uterus, thereby ca...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research
By Katrina Mark, MD 1. Fertility naturally declines as we age That alone doesn’t mean you should start to worry. The general advice I give a woman is if she has been trying to become pregnant for a full year with no luck, she might consider a fertility evaluation. For a woman over age 35, she might consider it after six months. If a woman is younger and has irregular periods, it’s likely she isn’t regularly ovulating, so she might want to be evaluated sooner. 2. Sometimes there’s a reason for infertility – and sometimes, there’s not There are some things we know cause infertility. About...
Source: Life in a Medical Center - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Health Tips Women's Health fertility Katrina Mark obgyn UMMC Source Type: blogs
Healthcare is a human right. No one should be denied the opportunity to see a doctor because of how much money is in their pocket or where they live. Our loved ones shouldn’t die from easily curable diseases simply because they can’t afford medicine. Black lives matter. Why are these controversial statements? Why are we living under an administration that thinks it is politically expedient to rip away our access to basic healthcare? Yes, denying people access to healthcare is the perfect way to accomplish your goals if your goals include severely restricting the flow of health resources to marginalized commu...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Tanmoy Mukherjee, MD Associate Director, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Mount Sinai Health System; Co-Director, Reproductive Medicine Associates of New York; Assistant Clinical Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai When prospective parents who are unable to conceive a child on their own consult me for assistance, I am excited to help them build their families. But for them, dealing with the challenges of infertility can be as stressful as having cancer. Fortunately, the latest advances in in vitro fertilization (IVF) are giving them a ...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
I knew I was pregnant before I even missed my period. I was supremely irritated with myself. Aged 30 and recently separated from the man I'd been with for the past 14 years, I couldn't help but laugh bitterly at the cosmic irony that, in all those years, the one time we managed to slip was just as we'd begun our divorce proceedings. In a perfect storm of upheaval, loss and longing, we had made a human error of miscalculation followed by a false assumption of improbability. When I walked back into the bathroom of my recently purged and lonesome Brooklyn apartment and saw my intuition confirmed with the word "pregnant&...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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