Novel prodrug PRX-P4-003, selectively activated by gut enzymes, may reduce the risk of iatrogenic addiction and abuse

Nearly 80 years since their first therapeutic use, stimulants such as methylphenidate and amphetamines remain amongst the most widely relied upon class of medications, with an estimated 90 million annual prescriptions in the USA alone (Swanson and Volkow, 2009; AMA, 1937; IMS Health, 2014). A range of new therapeutic applications for stimulants are being actively investigated although, currently, they are primarily prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and occasionally for narcolepsy and treatment-resistant depression (Adler, 2008; AAP, 2011; Alpert and Fava, 2014; Challman and Lipsky, 2000).
Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Full length article Source Type: research

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BACKGROUND: Many people who consider suicide do not translate these intentions into action. Although prisoners constitute a particularly high-risk group for suicide, little is known about the factors that distinguish those who think about suicide from thos...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Suicide and Self-Harm Source Type: news
BACKGROUND: Affective disturbances have long been implicated in the onset and maintenance of problematic alcohol use. Affective risk theory for problem drinking has moved beyond early documentation that negative affect, broadly, confers risk to models spec...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news
BACKGROUND: Socially marginalised drug users when congregating in the public space on so-called 'open drug scenes' are often problematised, especially in post-industrial cities which increasingly are engaged in attempts to attract those that are considered...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news
BACKGROUND: Whether medical or recreational cannabis legalization impacts alcohol or cigarette consumption is a key question as cannabis policy evolves, given the adverse health effects of these substances. Relatively little research has examined this ques...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news
BACKGROUND: Poor cognitive abilities and low intellectual quotient (IQ) are associated with an increased risk of suicide attempts and suicide mortality. However, knowledge of how this association develops across the life-course is limited. Our study aims t...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
This study examines associations between adolescent problem behaviors and adolescent-parent disagreement in ratings of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Adolescent-parent dyads (N = 463; mean age = 12.68 years; 48.5% female; 78.2% White and 21.8%...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
Conclusions: EA treatment can decrease the expression of hypothalamic CRF and CRF-R1, relieve anxiety and depression, meanwhile reduce the expression of CRF-R1 in the gastrointestinal mucosa, increase ZO-1 expression, and adjust tight junctions (TJs) to repair the intestinal mucosal barrier. The above roles suggest that EA may play a dual role in alleviating the gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms of IBS, suggesting a potentially dual therapeutic role for EA in regulating disorders of gut-brain interaction in IBS rats. PMID: 31737064 [PubMed]
Source: Gastroenterology Research and Practice - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Gastroenterol Res Pract Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Cheryl F. Harding, Carolyn L. Pytte, Kimberly G. Page, Kelly J. Ryberg, Edna Normand, Gregory J. Remigio, Richard A. DeStefano, David B. Morris, Julia Voronina, Ariel Lopez, Lauren A. Stalbow, Erin P. Williams, ohely AbreuAbstractIndividuals living or working in moldy buildings complain of a variety of health problems including pain, fatigue, increased anxiety, depression, and cognitive deficits. The ability of mold to cause such symptoms is controversial since no published research has examined the effects of controlled mold...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionIIE is a candidate anti-AD therapy due to its ability to exert neuroprotective and antidepressant effects.Graphical Abstract
Source: Phytomedicine - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity places low-income African American women at risk of depression. Given widespread poverty among HIV-positive individuals in the Black Belt, access to food should be considered in HIV-related prescriptions and in health disparities research. PMID: 31735727 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: J Health Care Poor Underserved Source Type: research
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