Oral and sublingual immunotherapy for egg allergy.

CONCLUSIONS: Frequent and increasing exposure to egg over one to two years in people who are allergic to egg builds tolerance, with almost everyone becoming more tolerant compared with a minority in the control group and almost half of people being totally tolerant of egg by the end of treatment compared with 1 in 10 people who avoid egg. However, nearly all who received treatment experienced adverse events, mainly allergy-related. We found that 1 in 12 children had serious allergic reactions requiring adrenaline, and some people gave up oral immunotherapy. It appears that oral immunotherapy for egg allergy is effective, but confidence in the trade-off between benefits and harms is low; because there was a small number of trials with few participants, and methodological problems with some trials. PMID: 29676439 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

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In this study, the gut microbiota of 30 LC patients and 30 healthy controls were examined via next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA and analyzed for diversity and biomarkers. We found that there was no decrease in significant microbial diversity (alpha diversity) in LC patients compared to controls (P observed = 0.1422), while the composition (beta diversity) differed significantly between patients and controls (phylum [stress = 0.153], class [stress = 0.16], order [stress = 0.146], family [stress = 0.153]). Controls had a higher abundance of the bacterial phylum Actinobacteria and genus Bifidobacterium, while patients wi...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy impacts 8% of US children,1 with peanut allergy prevalence steadily increasing.2 Food allergy affects everyday activities for food-allergic children and their parents,3 which can increase anxiety and reduce health-related quality of life (QoL).4, 5 Although several peanut-desensitization methods are being studied, no approved treatments exist for peanut-allergic patients.6, 7 Current research is mainly focused on efficacy and safety; however, it is important to consider participant QoL following peanut-immunotherapy clinical trials.
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Letters Source Type: research
Improving the safety of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) for food allergy is necessary to reduce side effects and achieve long-term tolerance. We determined the effect of dietary supplementation with 1% non-d...
Source: Clinical and Molecular Allergy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Allergen-specific immunotherapy has shown promise for the treatment of food allergy and is currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Although immunotherapy can induce desensitization, the mechanisms underlying this process are not completely understood. Recent advances in high-throughput technologies along with concomitant advances in data analytics have enabled monitoring of cells at the single-cell level and increased the research focus on upstream cellular factors involved in the efficacy of immunotherapy, particularly the role of T cells. As our appreciation of different T cell subsets and their plasticity increase...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Horino S, Kitazawa H, Satou T, Miura K Abstract Hen's egg is the most common allergen in IgE-mediated food allergy among children in Japan. Although the majority of patients with egg allergy can eat heated egg yolk safely because of its low allergenicity, severely allergic patients show an immediate-type reaction to heated egg yolk. We hypothesized that patients with hyperresponsiveness to boiled egg yolk may have difficulty in acquiring tolerance to egg. The purpose of this study was to examine the prognosis of patients with hyperresponsiveness to boiled egg yolk. Data from 121 patients with egg allergy w...
Source: Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Allergy Asthma Immunol Res Source Type: research
Food allergy affects ∼8% of children and up to 5% of adults. Standard-of-care consists of food avoidance and keeping rescue epinephrine and antihistamines available.1 While oral (OIT) and/or epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) products may receive FDA within the next 1-2 years, these require long-term compliance and are not known to lead a cure and may cause recurrent allergic reactions. A number of biologics has been used to treat atopic diseases and asthma but only few have been evaluated to date in food allergy (Table1).
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate whether subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with Fagales pollen-containing extracts can improve the clinical symptoms of OAS in Korea. In total, 56 OAS patients were included: 19 subjects treated with SCIT, which included Fagales pollen extracts, and 37 not treated with immunotherapy (IT). We reviewed the patients' medical records and administered a telephone questionnaire at one point to assess baseline OAS features and changes in the patients' OAS and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) symptoms after treatment. Only 12 patients who received SCIT and 15 patients that did not receive SCIT coul...
Source: Yonsei Medical Journal - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Yonsei Med J Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFood allergen immunotherapy may benefit from adjunct therapies to enhance safety and efficacy. We review preclinical studies investigating the effects of probiotics and other microbial-based interventions on oral tolerance, describe the human clinical trial evidence thus far for microbial adjuncts, and discuss steps for translating research findings in this area to clinical therapy.Recent FindingsMurine studies support that microbial-based interventions confer protection against sensitization and may augment treatment efficacy for food allergy. Microbial adjunct therapies can promote regulatory T c...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Authors: Langlois A, Graham F, Bégin P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Food allergy prevalence has increased in recent decades, which has mobilized efforts to develop treatment alternatives. Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) is a novel method that involves transdermal administration of peanut allergen with the objective to induce tolerance. Recent clinical trials have shown its efficacy at increasing the eliciting dose in children with a favorable safety profile. Areas covered: This review covers the proposed mechanism of action of EPIT in murine models and humans, efficacy and safety data from clinical trials with p...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research
AbstractMucosal tolerance refers to the physiological process by which exposure of proteins to the mucosal surface preferentially induces tolerance. The route of mucosal administration can determine the type of regulatory T (Treg) cells induced, with the oral route inducing transforming growth factor ‐β‐producing Treg cells and the nasal route inducing interleukin‐10‐secreting Treg cells. Previous studies of oral tolerance to autoantigens in humans, including patients with multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes, led to mixed results and negative phase III trials, althoug h oral immunotherap...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
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