Lowering nicotine in cigarettes

Follow me on Twitter @mallikamarshall When I was about 10 years old, my mother had me take a puff on an unfiltered Camel cigarette in an effort to discourage me from smoking in the future. Well, needless to say, it worked. After coughing and sputtering for what seemed like hours, I have never touched another cigarette. While I am in no way suggesting that parents follow in my mother’s footsteps (in fact I would strongly discourage it), as a pediatrician and parent myself I want to ensure that children and teens never take that first puff. But in fact, the majority of smokers in the US begin smoking in their youth. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, and tobacco kills more than 480,000 Americans every year. Cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic lung disease, infertility, pregnancy complications, fractures, cataracts, gum disease — the list of diseases caused or complicated by tobacco use goes on and on. So why do people continue to smoke? Because they can’t quit. The role of nicotine Cigarettes contain nicotine, a highly addictive substance found naturally in tobacco. When inhaled, nicotine travels quickly to the brain, causing a variety of pleasurable sensations. Many report an adrenaline “kick.” Others report a feeling of relaxation and improved mood. Some say it makes them more alert and improves their ability to concentr...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health Heart Health Lung disease Prevention Smoking cessation Source Type: blogs

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Halogenated boroxine dipotassium trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate K2[B3O3F4OH] inhibits emerging multidrug-resistant and β-lactamase-producing opportunistic pathogens. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2019 Aug 16;:1-21 Authors: Maravić A, Rončević T, Krce L, Ilić N, Galić B, Čikeš Čulić V, Carev I Abstract Halogenated boroxine dipotassium trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate, K2[B3O3F4OH] (boroxine) was previously shown to be very effective in inhibition of several carcinoma cell lines, including the skin cancer. Here, we investigated its antimicrobial potential by targeting the multidrug-resistan...
Source: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Dev Ind Pharm Source Type: research
Authors: Abdellatif AAH Abstract Numerous normal and tumors cells are well-known to express the somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) on their surface which make the receptor be useful for tumor scintigraphy. Thus, identification of SSTRs is beneficial, especially SSTR2. The somatostatin analogue, Octreotide (OCT) was chosen as a ligand, as it is known to selectively bind to SSTR2. Moreover, polyethylene glycol (PEG), 8armPEG was used as a branched PEG to provide a low non-specific cell binding and easily chemical modification. OCT, and fluorescein (Flu) were conjugated to branched PEG using a water-soluble carbodiimide (...
Source: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Dev Ind Pharm Source Type: research
Authors: Wu KK, Nguyen KB, Sandhu JK, Armstrong AW Abstract It is unknown which region of the U.S. offers the best and worst access to care for atopic dermatitis (AD). We conducted a cross-sectional study using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) from 1996-2015 to compare healthcare resource use and cost of AD among U.S. census regions. We conducted multivariable regression analyses adjusting for clinicodemographic factors to evaluate regional differences in healthcare resource use and cost per patient per year (PPPY) in terms of ambulatory visits, ED visits, and medications directly attributable to AD. An ...
Source: Journal of Dermatological Treatment - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Dermatolog Treat Source Type: research
We present a case of a patient that experienced severe hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis secondary to injection of 1.0 mg/0.1 ml of intracameral vancomycin for endophthalmitis prophylaxis after an uneventful cataract surgery. The case is especially unique in that our patient ended up maintaining 20/25 vision with an ocular disease that is typically visually threatening. This may be due to the aggressive administration of periocular and oral steroids combined with scheduled anti-VEGF injections that were later transitioned into a treat and extend regimen. PMID: 31418634 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research
Conclusion: EBE in a North American population showed poor visual recovery despite treatment. It was most commonly due to gram-positive bacteria with the most common infectious source being endocarditis. Malignancy should be considered in patients with bilateral EBE. PMID: 31418616 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research
Conclusion: IP-10 and MCP-1 AH levels seem to be related to DEX intraocular action, decreasing after injection and increasing when DME relapses. In addition, IL-6 and IL-8 may play a role in DME late evolution and clinical relapse beyond DEX effect. PMID: 31418610 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research
The reluctance to operate on pregnant women is not new and is based on limited and flawed data.1 We fear that the conclusions advanced in the recent publication by Fong and colleagues2 may serve as unjustified support for such delay in surgery, exposing pregnant women to complications.
Source: Journal of the American College of Surgeons - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Letter Source Type: research
We thank Tolcher and colleagues for their interest in our study.1 However, we disagree with their position that cholecyststectomy in the third trimester is safe for both the pregnant woman and the baby. In their review article,2 old, uncontrolled, and underpowered studies are quoted to justify their recommendation to proceed with surgery during pregnancy. These same inadequate studies were used to justify current guidelines.3 In comparison, our analysis of nearly 18,000 pregnant women undergoing cholecystectomy in the third trimester or the 90 days after delivery is properly controlled and powered to draw appropriate conclusions.
Source: Journal of the American College of Surgeons - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Letter Source Type: research
We appreciate the interest that Roncati and Piscioli showed in our recent publication, in which we evaluated the risk of sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases in nonulcerated, T1b melanoma by the new 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging criteria.1 The authors propose a model of melanoma progression based on the transition from a radial growth phase to a vertical growth phase (VGP) that can predict biologic aggressiveness and propensity to metastasize.
Source: Journal of the American College of Surgeons - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Letter Source Type: research
In comparison with the 7th Edition, the 8th Edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for melanoma no longer considers the mitotic count in the a or b T1 categorization, but it adopts a sub-stratification based on Breslow depth: T1a ≤ 0.8 mm without ulceration and T1b ≤ 0.8 mm with ulceration or 0.8 to 1 mm with or without ulceration. Skin melanoma can be subdivided by Breslow depth into thin melanoma (≤1 mm) or thick melanoma (>1  mm). According to the AJCC 8th Edition, a and b specifications are assigned based on ulceration and depth, which replace the mitotic count for square millimeter.
Source: Journal of the American College of Surgeons - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Letter Source Type: research
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