HIV as social and ecological experience

Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018 Source:Social Science & Medicine Author(s): Brian King, Margaret S. Winchester The spread and varied impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic demonstrate the complex and reciprocal relationships between the socio-political and biophysical dimensions of human health. Yet even with increasing research and policy attention there remain critical gaps in the literature on how HIV-positive households manage health through their engagement with social and ecological systems. This is particularly urgent given improvements in the global response to the epidemic, whereby expanded access to antiretroviral therapy has extended the possibility for survival for years or decades. Because many HIV-positive families and communities in the Global South remain dependent upon a diverse set of resources to generate income and meet subsistence needs, the impacts of disease must be understood within a mix of social processes, including the maintenance of land and collection of natural resources. Similarly, biophysical systems disrupted by HIV/AIDS vary depending upon resource use and locally-specific dynamics that influence opportunities for agrarian production. This paper reports on the findings from a structured survey completed in three communities in northeast South Africa in 2013 that is integrated with focus group discussions and qualitative interviews conducted from 2013–2016. We concentrate upon the diverse ways that individuals and famili...
Source: Social Science and Medicine - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

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Resumo Diante do papel hist órico da sociedade civil organizada nas respostas sociais à aids e na governança global em saúde, o artigo analisa a biografia de mulheres com HIV/aids, integrantes do Movimento Nacional das Cidadãs Posithivas (MNCP), uma rede nacional de mulheres soropositivas. Utilizou-se abordagem qualitativ a, com observações das ações do MNCP no Rio de Janeiro e entrevistas individuais com oito integrantes do MNCP, sobre suas motivações e experiências no movimento. A maioria das entrevistadas tinha mais de 50 anos e foi diagn...
Source: Ciencia e Saude Coletiva - Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research
This study provides a novel approach to modelling life expectancy, all-cause mortality and cause of death forecasts —and alternative future scenarios—for 250 causes of death from 2016 to 2040 in 195 countries and territories.MethodsWe modelled 250 causes and cause groups organised by the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) hierarchical cause structure, using GBD 2016 estimates from 1990–2016, to generate predictions for 2017–40. Our modelling framework used data from the GBD 2016 study to systematically account for the relationships between risk factors and health outco...
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Even though the prevalence of HIV among drug users is not much higher than in the general population in Addis Ababa, the needle sharing prevalence was high. Thus, this baseline study shows the need to establish harm reduction programmes and prevention strategies for the PWID in Addis Ababa. PMID: 30319040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) recently surpassed HIV/AIDS as the deadliest infectious disease. Despite some advancements in technologies and programs, TB remains a global health epidemic that, without significant gains in better diagnostic and management, will not abate. This review describes the molecular diagnostic gaps, needs, and potential solutions for improving access to diagnosis and management of patients with drug susceptible and drug resistant TB. The ultimate goal is to improve laboratory diagnostics and better individualized managementof detected TB, and make an important contribution toward eliminating t...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
See something of interest? Please share our postings with colleagues in your institutions! Spotlight The MAReport: read the Summer/Fall 2018 issue of the MAReport newsletter! This quarter, All of Us Community Engagement Coordinator Veronica Leigh Milliner talks about opportunities to incorporate genetics into health programming in her article, “Your Family, Your History, Your Health: Genetics Resources.” New Funding Opportunity: NNLM MAR is pleased to announce the availability of funding through NLM’s partnership with the NIH All of Us Research Program. We are now accepting applications for...
Source: NN/LM Middle Atlantic Region Blog - Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: Tags: Weekly Postings Source Type: news
Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe respiratory disease with high fatality rates in humans. The 2002-2003 SARS-CoV epidemic resulted in 8098 cases and 744 deaths, and MERS-CoV, which emerged in 2012, has resulted in 2144 cases and over 750 deaths as of March 2018. Currently, there are no effective prophylactic or therapeutic measures, and because other CoVs are poised to emerge as new human pathogens, there is a need to define a general CoV vaccine solution. Past efforts to develop CoV vaccines have used whole-inactivated virus, live-attenuated virus, recombinant protein subunit, or genetic approaches.CoV spike (S) prote...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Purpose of review The detrimental synergy of colliding HIV and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics is most devastating among children and adolescents living with HIV (CALWH) who shoulder a disproportionate burden of all child TB mortality. Recent findings CALWH benefit less from Bacille–Calmette Guerin vaccination than HIV-uninfected children and are not receiving TB preventive therapy despite global recommendations. Further, the predictive utility of most diagnostic tools is reduced in CALWH. Finally, antiretroviral and anti-TB drug interactions continue to complicate cotreatment for children. Despite these challenges,...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TUBERCULOSIS AND HIV: Edited by Richard E. Chaisson and Haileyesus Getahun Source Type: research
In a week dominated by Judge Brett Kavanaugh’s confirmation battle and the partisan divisions it exposed, the Senate also showed it’s still capable of bipartisan achievements. The Senate on Wednesday passed sweeping legislation to address the opioid crisis by a 98-1 vote. The proposal, which passed the House by a margin of 393-8, is expected to be signed into law by President Donald Trump. Dubbed the SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act, the bill marked a rare bipartisan effort to address a national health crisis that has devastated communities all over the country. More than 200,000 people in the United St...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
See something of interest? Please share our postings with colleagues in your institutions! Spotlight The MAReport: the Summer/Fall 2018 issue of the MAReport newsletter is now available! This quarter, Executive Director Kate Flewelling wrote about how the National Library of Medicine and National Network of Libraries of Medicine are responding to the opioid crisis, including details on a new class that will be offered for the first time on November 28. National Network of Libraries of Medicine News Funding Applications Due: NNLM MAR has funding available for two grants of $19,000. Libraries, community-based organizations, ...
Source: NN/LM Middle Atlantic Region Blog - Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: Tags: Weekly Postings Source Type: news
The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource (ACSR) has four regional biorepositories (RBRs) in the United States and one in South Africa. The ACSR is funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) of the National Institutes of Health (United States) to support investigators studying HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS-associated malignancies. The ACSR inventory includes more than 450,000 annotated HIV-positive biospecimens from over 10,000 individuals and 100,000 HIV-negative controls from approximately 4,250 individuals, reflecting the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and post-HAART era of the HIV epidemic, as well as selected...
Source: Open Journal of Bioresources - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
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