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HIV as social and ecological experience

Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018 Source:Social Science & Medicine Author(s): Brian King, Margaret S. Winchester The spread and varied impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic demonstrate the complex and reciprocal relationships between the socio-political and biophysical dimensions of human health. Yet even with increasing research and policy attention there remain critical gaps in the literature on how HIV-positive households manage health through their engagement with social and ecological systems. This is particularly urgent given improvements in the global response to the epidemic, whereby expanded access to antiretroviral therapy has extended the possibility for survival for years or decades. Because many HIV-positive families and communities in the Global South remain dependent upon a diverse set of resources to generate income and meet subsistence needs, the impacts of disease must be understood within a mix of social processes, including the maintenance of land and collection of natural resources. Similarly, biophysical systems disrupted by HIV/AIDS vary depending upon resource use and locally-specific dynamics that influence opportunities for agrarian production. This paper reports on the findings from a structured survey completed in three communities in northeast South Africa in 2013 that is integrated with focus group discussions and qualitative interviews conducted from 2013–2016. We concentrate upon the diverse ways that individuals and famili...
Source: Social Science and Medicine - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

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Conclusion Commissioner Gottlieb ended his speech by recognizing that “we haven’t seen meaningful, voluntary actions,” when it comes to opioids and to that end, the FDA is planning to host a summit with CEOs and other senior representatives of internet stakeholders, academics, and various advocacy groups to identify technology gaps and possible solutions. Both the House and the Senate are working on a variety of bipartisan proposals that could be included in the next legislative package addressing the opioid epidemic. The House Energy and Commerce Committee has the third in its hearing series on this to...
Source: Policy and Medicine - Category: American Health Authors: Source Type: blogs
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo explore the consequences of policies implemented in the Russian Federation in response to syndemic of HIV-1 and opioid use disorder and compare the responses to the concomitant syndemic in rural America.Recent FindingsThe syndemic spread has not been reduced by policies implemented by the Russian government, which continues to underfund harm reduction efforts to reduce HIV transmission, refuses to approve evidence-based opioid agonist treatments for opioid use disorder, and relies on criminal justice and abstinence approaches to control illicit opioids. When effective measures have been undertak...
Source: Current HIV/AIDS Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
The latest inquiry must discover how thousands of haemophiliacs contracted HIV or hepatitis C from blood products, and why it was covered up for so longIn two weeks ’ time Sir Brian Langstaff will take up his post as chair of thepublic inquiry into contaminated blood and contaminated blood products. Today, World Haemophilia Day, is the perfect occasion to remind Langstaff what the thousands of haemophiliac victims need from this inquiry if they are to get justice.In the 1970s and 1980s more than 4,600 haemophiliacs contracted HIV or hepatitis C after being infected by contaminated blood-clotting products. Much of the...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Health Society Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Aids and HIV NHS Health policy Politics UK news Science Medical research Source Type: news
(University of California - San Diego) The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has awarded a five-year, $15 million grant to the San Diego Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) at UC San Diego, renewing support that extends back to an original establishing grant in 1994--the height of the AIDS epidemic.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: Greater epidemiological impact would be possible through better targeting of existing resources, but additional resources would still be required to meet targets. Allocative efficiency models have proven valuable in improving the HIV planning and budgeting process. PMID: 29652100 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2018 Source:Operations Research for Health Care Author(s): Ping Yan, Fan Zhang Motivated by the vision of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS that 90% of people living with HIV will be diagnosed by year 2020, we present an optimization framework regarding repeated testing of an infectious disease which is transmitted unevenly in the population. A subset of HIV surveillance data in Canada with detailed and compatible variables is pooled for statistical analysis. The study population is Men having Sex with Men (MSM) in Canada from the pooled data. Estimated parameters re...
Source: Operations Research for Health Care - Category: Hospital Management Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The HIV example provides helpful parallels for addressing challenges to expanding access to HCV DAAs. HCV treatment access - and harm reduction - should be massively scaled-up to meet the needs of PWID, and efforts should be made to tackle stigma and discrimination, and stop criminalization of drug use and possession. PMID: 29633580 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
As technology has advanced, survival rates of preterm infants have improved dramatically. Human milk was the primary source of enteral nutrition during the early days of neonatology, but the HIV/AIDS epidemic resulted in an increased use of preterm formula. More recently, the benefits of human milk were rediscovered, resulting in increased use of donor human milk as well. The awareness that human milk does not contain the amounts of nutrients to meet the high requirements of infants born premature resulted in the development of human milk fortifiers. The development of these fortifiers is still ongoing, as are alternative ...
Source: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
Despite major in-roads in its prevention and management, the HIV pandemic continues to impact some of the world's most vulnerable populations. In 2016 an estimated 36.7 million (34 –40 million, estimated boundaries) people were living with the HIV; fewer than half were in receipt of effective treatments, and around about a third. The combination of prevention efforts and high-quality HIV care is beginning to produce encouraging declines in new HIV diagnoses in the UK, as wel l as fewer AIDS cases and HIV-related deaths.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Epidemiology of HIV and STIs Source Type: research
Conclusion Commissioner Gottlieb ended his speech by recognizing that “we haven’t seen meaningful, voluntary actions,” when it comes to opioids and to that end, the FDA is planning to host a summit with CEOs and other senior representatives of internet stakeholders, academics, and various advocacy groups to identify technology gaps and possible solutions. Both the House and the Senate are working on a variety of bipartisan proposals that could be included in the next legislative package addressing the opioid epidemic. The House Energy and Commerce Committee has the third in its hearing series on this to...
Source: Policy and Medicine - Category: American Health Authors: Source Type: blogs
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