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Discovery of 4 subtypes of melanoma points to new treatment approaches

FINDINGSMelanoma, a relatively rare but deadly skin cancer, has been shown to switch differentiation states — that is, to regress to an earlier stage of development — which can lead it to become resistant to treatment. Now, UCLA researchers have found that melanomas can be divided into four distinct subtypes according to their stages of differentiation. Cell subtypes that de-differentiated — meaning that they reverted back to a less-mature cell — showed sensitivity to a type of self-inflicted cell death called ferroptosis.The research also showed that certain subtypes of melanoma cells could be successfully treated using multiple cancer therapies in combination with ferroptosis-inducing drugs.BACKGROUNDMelanoma arises from melanocytes, cells that produce pigments. Although targeted therapies and a greater understanding of cancer immunology have significantly improved survival, many patients either relapse or do not respond to treatment.METHODThe UCLA team, led by Dr. Thomas Graeber, analyzed the gene expressions of melanoma cells and compared them to information in public genetics databases to identify the four different subtypes of melanoma  with different drug sensitivities. The team organized the melanoma cells according to characteristic patterns of genes they had turned on. Comparing the gene expression patterns to data from stem cells induced to differentiate to melanocytes, they discovered that melanomas can be found in four dif ferent diff...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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The BAFF receptor BR3 plays key roles in B-cell activation, maturation, and survival whereas the function of BR3 on T lymphocytes is less well characterized. Previous reports have demonstrated that BR3 costimulates human T-cell activation in vitro in the presence of high nonphysiological levels of plate-bound BAFF. Here, relying on the soluble and membrane-bound BAFF expressed by T cells themselves, we investigated the function of BR3 on activated primary CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes using a BR3-specific neutralization antibody and shRNA gene down-modulation. Interestingly, the anti-BR3 blocking antibody resulted in signifi...
Source: Journal of Immunotherapy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Basic Studies Source Type: research
The California attorney general has filed an emergency request with the state court of appeals to reverse a lower court ruling to invalidate the End of Life Option Act. The End of Life Option Act remains in effect until further notice. Similar to laws in Washington, D.C. and six other states, the California law gives mentally capable, terminally ill adults with six months or less to live to the option to request prescription medication they can decide to take to end unbearable suffering and die peacefully in their sleep. Last Tuesday, Riverside County Superior Court Judge Daniel Ottolia invalidated the law ...
Source: blog.bioethics.net - Category: Medical Ethics Authors: Tags: Health Care syndicated Source Type: blogs
Conclusion Overall, our results indicate that allicin reinforces the ATRA-mediated inhibitory effects on CD44+ and CD117+ melanoma cells and may provide a new approach for the treatment of malignant melanoma. Graphical abstract
Source: Phytomedicine - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
AbstractHyperthermia is a promising alternative modality for the conventional cancer treatments. Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) has been widely applied for hyperthermia cancer therapy by a near-infrared light irradiation. Some special nanoparticles can convert light energy into heat and destroy the tumor cells. Inspired from the photothermal efficacy of the gold nanoparticles, here we synthesized, characterized, and applied novel photothermal polyethylene glycol-curcumin-gold nanoparticles (PEG-Cur-Au NPs) in cancer PTT. The effect of PEG-Cur-Au NPs upon irradiation by an 808-nm laser on C540 (B16/F10) ce...
Source: Lasers in Medical Science - Category: Laser Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 September 2018 Source:Journal of Molecular Structure, Volume 1168 Author(s): Monika Kadela-Tomanek, Bartosz Pawełczak, Maria Jastrzębska, Ewa Bębenek, Elwira Chrobak, Małgorzata Latocha, Joachim Kusz, Maria Książek, Stanisław Boryczka 6,7-Dichloro-2-methyl-5,8-quinolinedione was investigated using different experimental methods as well as a variety of various quantum chemical calculations in order to characterize its molecular structure as a potential anticancer active compound. We used X-ray diffraction, IR spectrum analysis supplemented by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations, mol...
Source: Journal of Molecular Structure - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Authors: Decaudin D, El Botty R, Diallo B, Massonnet G, Fleury J, Naguez A, Raymondie C, Davies E, Smith A, Wilson J, Howes C, Smith PD, Cassoux N, Piperno-Neumann S, Roman-Roman S, Némati F Abstract The prognosis of metastatic uveal melanoma (UM) is among the worst of all human cancers. The identification of near-ubiquitous GNAQ/GNA11 mutations and the activation of MAPK signaling in UM have raised hopes of more effective, targeted therapies, based on MEK inhibition, for example. We evaluated the potential of drug combinations to increase the efficacy of the MEK inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886),...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This study has defined the rate of cSCC in a large, well defined New Zealand population, and estimated age and ethnicity adjusted incidence in New Zealand. It has demonstrated the highest incidence of cSCC in the world outside Australia. Overall positive margin rate of excised lesions was acceptable. PMID: 29771903 [PubMed - in process]
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018 Source:Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy Author(s): Cecilia Orbegoso, Krithika Murali, Susana Banerjee Background Immunotherapy has been proven effective in several tumours, hence diverse immune checkpoint inhibitors are currently licensed for the treatment of melanoma, kidney cancer, lung cancer and most recently, tumours with microsatellite instability. There is much enthusiasm for investigating this approach in gynaecological cancers and the possibility that immunotherapy might become part of the therapeutic landscape for gynaecological malignancies. Cervica...
Source: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
The BMJScan (at two resolutions) of a category 3 melanoma in situ.FINDINGSIn a new study, researchers have developed updated guidelines for classifying a serious form of skin cancer called invasive melanoma. The American Joint Committee on Cancer, an organization that provides information on “cancer staging,” or the severity of individual cases of cancer, recently updated its guidelines for melanoma. The researchers found that when pathologists used the new guidelines for cases of early stage invasive melanoma, they agreed with an expert-defined diagnosis 10 percent more often.METHODIn the study, researchers re...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Researchers have updated the guidelines for determining the severity of individual cases of a type of serious skin cancer known as invasive melanoma.
Source: Health News - UPI.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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