Discovery of 4 subtypes of melanoma points to new treatment approaches

FINDINGSMelanoma, a relatively rare but deadly skin cancer, has been shown to switch differentiation states — that is, to regress to an earlier stage of development — which can lead it to become resistant to treatment. Now, UCLA researchers have found that melanomas can be divided into four distinct subtypes according to their stages of differentiation. Cell subtypes that de-differentiated — meaning that they reverted back to a less-mature cell — showed sensitivity to a type of self-inflicted cell death called ferroptosis.The research also showed that certain subtypes of melanoma cells could be successfully treated using multiple cancer therapies in combination with ferroptosis-inducing drugs.BACKGROUNDMelanoma arises from melanocytes, cells that produce pigments. Although targeted therapies and a greater understanding of cancer immunology have significantly improved survival, many patients either relapse or do not respond to treatment.METHODThe UCLA team, led by Dr. Thomas Graeber, analyzed the gene expressions of melanoma cells and compared them to information in public genetics databases to identify the four different subtypes of melanoma  with different drug sensitivities. The team organized the melanoma cells according to characteristic patterns of genes they had turned on. Comparing the gene expression patterns to data from stem cells induced to differentiate to melanocytes, they discovered that melanomas can be found in four dif ferent diff...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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Abstract Skin cancer represents a broad classification of malignancies, which can be further refined by histology, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma. As these three cancers are distinct entities, we review each one separately, with a focus on their epidemiology, etiology including relevant genomic data, and the current evidence-based recommendations for adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy. We also discuss future directions and opportunities for continued therapeutic advances. PMID: 30420067 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am Source Type: research
Abstract Melanoma is a potentially aggressive skin cancer with a steadily rising incidence. Most melanomas are diagnosed at an early stage and associated with an excellent prognosis when treated appropriately. Primary treatment for melanoma is surgical. Wider surgical margins and a variety of techniques for comprehensive histologic margin assessment may be considered for lentigo maligna type melanoma on the head and neck, due to characteristic broad subclinical extension. For invasive melanoma, sentinel lymph node biopsy may be indicated for staging, and to guide further management and follow-up. Appropriate treat...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am Source Type: research
Abstract Radiotherapy plays a role in the definitive or adjuvant management of early and late stage skin cancers including nonmelanoma basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. The role of radiotherapy in skin cancers of the head and neck is reviewed including early and advanced-stage nonmelanoma skin cancers, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. In particular, the indications, oncologic outcomes, and technical aspects of radiotherapy for these diseases are discussed. PMID: 30420066 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am Source Type: research
AbstractThe past decade has witnessed a growing role and increasing use of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI). Driving these successes are developments in both hardware and software that have reduced overall examination times and significantly improved MR imaging quality. In addition, radiologists and clinicians have continued to find promising new applications of this innovative imaging technique that brings together morphologic and functional characterization of tissues. In oncology, the role of WB-MRI has expanded to the point of being recommended in international guidelines for the assessment of several can...
Source: La Radiologia Medica - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Authors: Vajaitu C, Draghici CC, Solomon I, Lisievici CV, Popa AV, Lupu M, Caruntu C, Constantin MM, Voiculescu VM Abstract An important function of the immune system is its ability to differentiate between healthy cells in the organism and "foreign" cells, allowing the latest to be attacked and the first ones to be conserved. The most important molecules in this process are considered to be checkpoint inhibitors. This review is focused on the association between cancer and inflammation, underlying the mechanisms of action of monoclonal antibodies that are targeting checkpoint inhibitors: ipilimumab again...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research
Checkpoint inhibitor therapies are a demonstrably successful approach to cancer immunotherapy. They suppress a mechanism that normally restrains immune cells from attacking other cells. This mechanism is abused by cancers, alongside a variety of other ways in which the immune system can be subverted or quieted. Any advanced tumor tends to have evolved into a state in which it is ignored or even helped by the immune system. Checkpoint inhibitor therapies are an improvement on chemotherapy when it comes to the trade-off between harming the cancer and harming the patient, as well as in the odds of success, but still present r...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Cancer, Volume 124, Issue 20, Page 3961-3961, October 15, 2018.
Source: Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CancerScope Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundRetrospective studies indicate that the use of regional anaesthesia causes a reduction in cancer recurrence after oncological surgery, which could be due to anaesthetic ’s negating effect on immunosuppression related to the surgical stress response. Local anaesthetics may also exert direct suppressive effects on malignant cells, an area where further investigation is urgently needed.MethodsHuman colon cancer cells and human melanoma cells were cultured and then treated with 1  mM bupivacaine or levobupivacaine for up to 24 or 48 h. Their migratory ability was measured by scratch assay, pro...
Source: Journal of Anesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
We would like to present the case of a melanoma patient with altered sentinel lymph node drainage on repeat sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) subsequent to previous breast cancer. A 53-year-old lady underwent a wide local excision (WLE) of a melanoma scar from her right breast with lymphoscintigraphy. She had a completely excised superficial spreading malignant melanoma (SSMM) of Breslow thickness (BT) 3.7mm with ulceration. She had a history of right breast carcinoma diagnosed in 2009, treated with lumpectomy and radiotherapy, and had undergone a previous negative sentinel lymph node biopsy of the right axilla.
Source: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
In conclusion, FOXD2‐AS1 is associated with clinical progression in cutaneous melanoma patients, and functions as oncogenic lncRNA in cutaneous melanoma cells.
Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
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