Postmarketing Adverse Event Reporting for Medical Products and Dietary Supplements During an Influenza Pandemic

Drug Safety
Source: FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research - What's New - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: news

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Source: Journal of Public Health Policy - Category: Health Management Source Type: research
AbstractAlmost all new treatments being developed for the next influenza pandemic target the virus. During the Ebola crisis in West Africa, patients were treated with an inexpensive generic statin/angiotensin receptor blocker combination that appeared to greatly improve survival. These drugs target the host response, not the virus, and probably reverse endothelial dysfunction. Scientists and health officials have shown little interest in this idea. Yet, during the early months of the next pandemic, vaccines will be unavailable and treatment options will be limited. Physicians should be prepared to undertake clinical trials...
Source: Journal of Public Health Policy - Category: Health Management Source Type: research
Abstract This narrative review article summarizes past and current technologies for generating antibodies for passive immunization/immunotherapy. Contemporary DNA and protein technologies have facilitated the development of engineered therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in a variety of formats according to the required effector functions. Chimeric, humanized, and human monoclonal antibodies to antigenic/epitopic myriads with less immunogenicity than animal-derived antibodies in human recipients can be produced in vitro. Immunotherapy with ready-to-use antibodies has gained wide acceptance as a powerful treatment aga...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: The Lancet Respiratory MedicineAuthor(s): Kenrie P Y Hui, Rachel H H Ching, Stan K H Chan, John M Nicholls, Norman Sachs, Hans Clevers, J S Malik Peiris, Michael C W ChanSummaryBackgroundHuman airway organoids are three-dimensional cultures derived from stem cells, which self-organise in ex-vivo conditions to form so-called mini-airways. The cellular morphology of these cultures is physiologically similar to the human airway, with cilia, goblet cells, and club cells facing the inner lumen and basal cells situated at the outer layer. The aim of this study was to compare...
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract Current influenza vaccines do not provide effective protection against heterologous influenza viruses. The ability of the novel M2SR influenza vaccine to protect against drifted influenza viruses was evaluated in naïve ferrets and in ferrets with pre-existing immunity to influenza. In naïve ferrets, M2SR provided similar protection against drifted challenge viruses as the comparator vaccine, FluMist®. However, in ferrets with pre-existing immunity, M2SR provided superior protection than FluMist in two model systems. In the first model, ferrets were infected with influenza A H1N1pdm and influ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) Virus-like particles (VLPs) are protein-based structures that mimic viruses and bind to antibodies. Because VLPs aren't infectious, they show promise as vaccine platforms for many viral diseases, including influenza. Since details about influenza VLPs are scant, a team of researchers developed a 3D model based on the 1918 H1 pandemic influenza virus. The research, conducted by NIAID scientists, could benefit VLP vaccine projects, targeting a range of viruses from HIV to Ebola and SARS coronavirus.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Publication date: June 2018Source: Epidemics, Volume 23Author(s): Ulrich Muellner, Guillaume Fournié, Petra Muellner, Christina Ahlstrom, Dirk U. PfeifferAbstractMathematical models of disease transmission are used to improve our understanding of patterns of infection and to identify factors influencing them. During recent public and animal health crises, such as pandemic influenza, Ebola, Zika, foot-and-mouth disease, models have made important contributions in addressing policy questions, especially through the assessment of the trajectory and scale of outbreaks, and the evaluation of control interventions. Howeve...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2018Source: EpidemicsAuthor(s): Petra Klepac, Stephen Kissler, Julia GogAbstractTo mark the centenary of the 1918 influenza pandemic, the broadcasting network BBC have put together a 75-min documentary called ‘Contagion! The BBC Four Pandemic’. Central to the documentary is a nationwide citizen science experiment, during which volunteers in the United Kingdom could download and use a custom mobile phone app called BBC Pandemic, and contribute their movement and contact data for a day.As the ‘maths team’, we were asked to use the data from the app to build ...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Publication date: March 2018Source: Epidemics, Volume 22Author(s): Pierre Nouvellet, Anne Cori, Tini Garske, Isobel M. Blake, Ilaria Dorigatti, Wes Hinsley, Thibaut Jombart, Harriet L. Mills, Gemma Nedjati-Gilani, Maria D. Van Kerkhove, Christophe Fraser, Christl A. Donnelly, Neil M. Ferguson, Steven RileyAbstractOutbreaks of novel pathogens such as SARS, pandemic influenza and Ebola require substantial investments in reactive interventions, with consequent implementation plans sometimes revised on a weekly basis. Therefore, short-term forecasts of incidence are often of high priority. In light of the recent Ebola epidemic...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the correlations between changes in respiratory management using ECMO in Japan and outcomes of patients with influenza-associated acute respiratory failure between 2009 and 2016.MethodsWe investigated the incidence, severity, characteristics, and prognosis of influenza-associated acute respiratory failure in 2016 by web-based surveillance. The correlations between clinical characteristics, ventilator settings, ECMO settings, and prognosis were evaluated.ResultsA total of 14 patients were managed with ECMO in 2016. There were no significant differences in age, sex, and the acute physiology an...
Source: Journal of Intensive Care - Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research
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