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Hopkins Nursing—Dean on Education and Moving Forward

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Source: Johns Hopkins University and Health Systems Archive - Category: Nursing Source Type: news

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The skin is an ideal target site for immunization because it contains both a rich network of antigen-presenting cells and immuno-responsive cells capable of inducing a proinflammatory microenvironment. As an alternative to current protein antigen based vaccines, recombinant DNA vaccines are being developed, including DNA vaccines that utilize viral vectors to improve antigen expression in vivo. The development of effective platforms for cutaneous delivery of viral vectors and adjuvants will be necessary to facilitate human translation.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Adaptive and Auto-Immunity Source Type: research
No viral infection has shaped human history more profoundly than smallpox. Although it was eradicated by a world-wide vaccination program by 1980, several fundamental challenges remain. There is an unacceptable incidence of morbidity and mortality after vaccinia virus (VACV) vaccine, particularly in individuals with atopic disorders. Therefore, less virulent variants of VAVC have been sought and a replication deficient variants of VACV, modified vaccinia ankara (MVA), has been developed. In all prior studies in humans, MVA has been delivered via intramuscular (im) injection.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Adaptive and Auto-Immunity Source Type: research
Infection is the second leading cause of death in patients with psoriasis, behind cardiovascular disease. Respiratory infections, including influenza, are of special importance because they represent a common cause of morbidity and mortality and may be preventable through vaccination. Universal influenza vaccination is recommended annually, but little is known about vaccination rates in psoriatic patients in the United States. We conducted a cohort study of adults in OptumInsight's Clinformatics Data Mart to examine influenza vaccine rates in patients with psoriasis compared to adults with other chronic illnesses (hyperten...
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Clinical Research: Epidemiology of Skin Diseases Source Type: research
The epidermis is a formidable barrier limiting the delivery of vaccines and drugs. The barrier structures found in the skin are the stratum corneum (SC) and tight junctions (TJ). SC is the first barrier, physically blocking molecules and pathogens, but its function can be disrupted by scratching or occlusion. The final barrier structure, TJs, are found in the stratum granulosum and limit paracellular transport to the Langerhans- and dendritic cell-rich areas of the epidermis and dermis. The TJ barrier is created by homodimerized transmembrane proteins such as claudin-1 (CLDN1) which connect adjacent cells.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Epidermal Structure and Barrier Function Source Type: research
Antigen presenting cells (APCs) are sentinels of the immune system and are found at sites susceptible to pathogen infiltration, such as the skin. Toll-like receptors (TLR) enable APCs to detect and initiate appropriate immune responses to distinct pathogens. We can exploit this mechanism by including synthetic TLR ligands in vaccines to augment immune responses to vaccine antigens. While the TLR3 ligand Poly I:C and TLR7/8 ligand R848 are being tested in clinical trials as potential cancer vaccine adjuvants, the effect of intradermal stimulation with these ligands individually or combinatorically on cutaneous APC subsets a...
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Innate Immunity, Microbiology, Inflammation Source Type: research
The skin is a tough tissue resistant to damage and therefore refractory to viral propagation. Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is a skin-tropic virus that causes chickenpox. Although very common, VZV infection can be life-threatening particularly in the immunocompromised. Therefore, understanding VZV-keratinocyte interactions is important to find new treatments beyond vaccination and anti-viral drugs. In VZV-infected skin, we observed focal up-regulation of the protease Kallikrein 6 (KLK6), and the ubiquitin-ligase MDM2 concomitant with Keratin 10 down-regulation.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Innate Immunity, Microbiology, Inflammation Source Type: research
Tumor-derived, cytosolic DNA has been reported to stimulate the production of type I interferon (IFN) through a STING-dependent signaling pathway in dendritic cells (DCs), which helps to initiate a spontaneous T cell response against melanoma. However, cytosolic DNA can also be recognized by AIM2, a cytosolic innate immune sensor, whose function in melanoma remains unclear. To determine the role of AIM2 in melanoma microenvironment, we subcutaneously challenged Aim2/ mice with B16F10 melanoma. Surprisingly, these mice exhibited a lower tumor burden with fewer tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Tregs) than WT mice, indi...
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Pigmentation and Melanoma Source Type: research
Mercedes Peleteiro, Elena Presas, Jose Vicente Gonz ález-Aramundiz, Beatriz Sánchez-Correa, Rosana Simón-Vázquez, Noemi Csaba, María J. Alonso, África González-Fernández
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2018 Source:Microbes and Infection Author(s): Jeffrey Downey, Erwan Pernet, François Coulombe, Maziar Divangahi Influenza A virus (IAV) is a pulmonary pathogen, responsible for significant yearly morbidity and mortality. Due to the absence of highly effective antiviral therapies and vaccine, as well as the constant threat of an emerging pandemic strain, there is considerable need to better understand the host-pathogen interactions and the factors that dictate a protective versus detrimental immune response to IAV. Even though evidence of IAV-induced cell death in human pu...
Source: Microbes and Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
r U Abstract Plant virus-based nanoparticles can be produced in plants on a large scale and are easily modified to introduce new functions, making them suitable for applications such as vaccination and drug delivery, tissue engineering, and in vivo imaging. The latter is often achieved using green fluorescent protein and its derivatives, but the monovalent fluorescent protein iLOV is smaller and more robust. Here, we fused the iLOV polypeptide to the N-terminus of the Potato virus X (PVX) coat protein, directly or via the Foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A sequence, for expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Direct fus...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
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