A 30-Year-Old Man with HIV, Fever, and a Rash

Patients who present with papular rashes have a wide differential diagnosis particularly in the setting of immune compromise. A 30-year-old male diagnosed with HIV since 2009, never on antiretroviral therapy, with a nadir CD4 count of 333 cells/mm3 and a current viral load of 44,300 copies/mL, presented with a diffuse monomorphic papular eruption that began on his trunk and extremities and subsequently spread to the penis and scrotum, sparing the distal acral sites. A thorough infectious workup revealed a positive rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and varicella IgM and IgG antibodies. Interestingly, the patient had been diagnosed and treated for syphilis in the past with a recent downtrending RPR drawn prior to hospitalization. Repeat RPR was elevated and a preliminary histopathology report demonstrated folliculocentric inflammation with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte predominance supported the diagnosis of syphilis. After receiving intramuscular penicillin G benzathine, he developed intermittent fevers and new papules. Intravenous (IV) acyclovir was initiated for presumed disseminated varicella given his positive varicella-zoster virus IgM and IgG. However, final pathology results revealed a large spirochete burden. The fevers and rash progression were attributed to the development of a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. IV acyclovir was discontinued and he completed a course of intramuscular penicillin G benzathine. He was also given a course of doxycycline fo...
Source: Dermatopathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research

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Authors: Sousa M, Pinho R, Rodrigues A Abstract Infectious proctitis by sexually transmitted diseases are increasing in incidence and should be considered in men who have sex with men with rectal symptoms. In this case, we show an exuberant form of syphilitic and chlamydial proctitis that could be diagnosed as another anorectal disease such as inflammatory proctitis or even as a neoplasm if the clinical history is not taken into account. PMID: 31545062 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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