Machine learning may identify medulloblastoma subtypes

The combination of machine learning and radiomics can predict the molecular...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: Is artificial intelligence ethical in healthcare? Deep learning may produce sharp reductions in DBT dose Deep learning can detect intracranial calcifications on CT Deep learning can quantify CAC on low-dose CT Deep-learning algorithm can stratify lung nodule risk
Source: Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news

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Mingfei Zhu, Hong Wang, Chenglin Wang, Yanfen Fang, Tong Zhu, Weili Zhao, Xiaochun Dong, Xiongwen Zhang
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of JPH203, a LAT1-specific pharmacological inhibitor, on two independent MB cell lines belonging to subgroups 3 (HD-MB03) and Shh (DAOY). We show that while displaying low toxicity towards normal cerebral cells, JPH203 disrupts AA homeostasis, mTORC1 activity, proliferation and survival in MB cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that a long-term treatment with JPH203 does not lead to resistance in MB cells. Therefore, this study suggests that targeting LAT1 with JPH203 is a promising therapeutic approach for MB treatment. PMID: 30784173 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: J Cell Mol Med - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research
Contributors : Julien Masliah-Planchon ; Franck BourdeautSeries Type : Methylation profiling by arrayOrganism : Homo sapiensMedulloblastoma (MB) is the most prevalent pediatric cerebral cancer, but is rare in adults. The vast majority of MB arises sporadically but some few cases occur in association with germline alterations in genes such as PTCH1, SUFU, APC, and TP53. Additional genes are responsible for MB predisposition including some that have probably not been described so far either due to the rarity of the cases and/or to the low penetrance. Here we report the case of a 27 years old woman affected by Pitt Hopkins sy...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Methylation profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research
yer M Abstract BACKGROUND: The extent of radiation therapy (RT)-induced changes in cognitive function is unknown. RT with protons instead of photons spares the healthy brain tissue more and is believed to reduce the risk of cognitive dysfunction. There is modest knowledge on which parts of the brain we need to spare, to prevent cognitive dysfunction. To uncover which cognitive domains is most affected, we compared cognitive functioning in brain tumor patients treated with neurosurgery and RT with brain tumor patients treated with neurosurgery alone. METHODS: A cross-sectional study assessing cognitive functio...
Source: Acta Oncologica - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Acta Oncol Source Type: research
ConclusionGABRA5 expression can serve as a diagnostic biomarker for group 3 tumors, while α5-GABAAR is a therapeutic target for benzodiazepine binding, enhancing an ion imbalance that induces apoptosis.
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
AbstractCranio-spinal irradiation (CSI) is widely used for treating medulloblastoma cases in children. Radiation-induced second malignancy is of grave concern; especially in children due to their long-life expectancy and higher radiosensitivity of tissues at young age. Several techniques can be employed for CSI including 3DCRT, IMRT, VMAT and tomotherapy. However, these techniques are associated with higher risk of second malignancy due to the physical characteristics of photon irradiation which deliver moderately higher doses to normal tissues. On the other hand, proton beam therapy delivers substantially lesser dose to n...
Source: Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Conclusion:this study provides further evidence that left posterior cerebellar lobe plays a critical role in WM. Indeed, lesions of left posterior cerebellar lobe were associated with WM impairment in children treated for cerebellar medulloblastoma. Additionally, fMRI using WM tasks showed activation in the left posterior cerebellar lobe in healthy children. Taken together, these findings may help for improving treatment and rehabilitation of children referred for cerebellar tumor.
Source: Journal of Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
The Hedgehog pathway is critical for the development of diverse organs. Misactivation of the Hedgehog pathway can cause developmental abnormalities and cancers, including medulloblastoma, the most common pediatric brain tumor, and basal cell carcinoma, the most common cancer in the United States. Here, we review how basic, translational, and clinical studies of the Hedgehog pathway have helped reveal how cells communicate, how intercellular communication controls development, how signaling goes awry to cause cancer, and how to use targeted molecular agents to treat both inherited and sporadic cancers.
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) and dedifferentiated/poorly differentiated chordoma are pediatric tumors with some overlapping morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features. Both these tumors have alterations in the tumor suppressor gene SMARCB1 resulting in loss of expression of the INI-1 protein. On the contrary, dedifferentiated/poorly differentiated chordoma expresses the transcription factor brachyury, whereas AT/RT does not. In this article we have reviewed the clinicopathologic features of a pediatric series of tumors (17 samples from 14 patients) located in the brain or within the axial spine an...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
DiscussionFuture work is warranted to investigate the relationship between mdNLR outcomes in specific pediatric medulloblastoma molecular subgroups.
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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