Adaptation of Borrelia burgdorferi to its natural hosts by synonymous codon and amino acid usage

In this study, the major factors underlying synonymous codon‐related amino acid usage in the B. burgdorferi genome and bias in synonymous codon usage of the translation initiation region of coding sequences were analyzed. Additionally, adaptation of B. burgdorferi to several of its hosts was analyzed in the context of synonymous codon usage. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that nucleotide content at the third synonymous position of a codon influenced the synonymous codon usage pattern, but the strand‐specific factor did not influence the synonymous codon usage pattern of B. burgdorferi. In terms of the low GC content of B. burgdorferi coding sequences, the effective number of codons (ENC) showed a significant correlation with GC3 content (at the synonymous position). For the amino acid usage pattern for B. burgdorferi, PCA showed that the strand‐specific factor did not contribute to this pattern, while the properties (aromaticity and hydrophobicity) of the amino acids themselves showed strong correlations with this pattern. Under‐represented codons, which were frequently selected in the translation initiation region, possibly play roles in regulating gene expression in B. burgdorferi. In terms of co‐evolution and synonymous codon usage patterns, adaptation of B. burgdorferi to different intermediate hosts was apparent to different degrees, and the degree of adaptation of this spirochete to wild animals was stronger than that of humans or mice.
Source: Journal of Basic Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

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We present the case of a woman with 24 gestational weeks presenting fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and inversion of albumin/globulin ratio. Anti-rK39 was positive and amastigotes were visualized on myelogram. Treatment with LAmB showed disease improvement. The newborn was born healthy at term, with delivery performed without complications. As VL in pregnancy can progress to death and complications for the mother-fetus binomial, inclusion of VL in the differential diagnosis of patients from endemic areas with compatible clinical picture is mandatory. Treatment with LAmB demonstrates safety and high cure rates in pregnancy.
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight the lack of research on congenital CD.
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows low circulation of antibodies to R. rickettsii in CVL-seropositive dogs. It is recommended that surveillance studies in dogs should continue in order to monitor this scenario.
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): C.A Oliveira Júnior, R.O.S Silva, A.P Lage, F.M Coura, C.P Ramos, A.A. Alfieri, R.M.C Guedes, F.C.F LobatoAbstractNeonatal porcine diarrhea (NPD) is a current problem on pig farms and is caused by several enteropathogens. Among them, Clostridioides difficile stands out due to its importance in piglets and zoonotic potential. A non-toxigenic strain of C. difficile (NTCD), named Z31, was previously tested in hamster and piglet experimental models as a strategy to prevent C. difficile infection (CDI). To evaluate the capacity o...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): S. Patterson, K. Bond, M. Green, S. van Winden, J. GuitianAbstractJohne’s disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is a chronic condition of dairy cattle, and is endemic in the UK. Lack of understanding of the relative importance of different transmission routes reduces the impact of control scheme recommendations. The long incubation period for Johne’s disease makes evaluation of control schemes difficult, and so this long-term cohort study offers a rare and valuable insight into the...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In this study, after implementing the intervention using the PRECEDE educational program, asignificant difference was found between the intervention and control groups in the mean scores for predisposing factors (knowledge and attitude) (P
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research
In this study, we aimed to update the estimations of case-fatality ratios for measles, to develop a prediction model to estimate case-fatality ratios across heterogeneous groupings, and to project future case-fatality ratios for measles up to 2030.MethodsWe did a review of the literature to identify studies examining measles cases and deaths in low-income and middle-income countries in all age groups from 1980 to 2016. We extracted data on case-fatality ratios for measles overall and by age, where possible. We developed and examined several types of generalised linear models and determined the best-fit model according to t...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
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Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Summary The spirochaete (Borrelia burgdorferi) associated with Lyme disease was detected in questing ticks and rodents during a period of 18 years, 1991–2009, at five locations on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The black‐legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) was collected at varied intervals between 1991 and 2009 and examined for B. burgdorferi. The white‐footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), house mouse (Mus musculus) marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris), marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris), eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) and six‐lined racerunner (Cnemidophorus sexlineatus) were live‐trapped...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
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Source: BMC Public Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Source Type: research
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