Adaptation of Borrelia burgdorferi to its natural hosts by synonymous codon and amino acid usage
In this study, the major factors underlying synonymous codon‐related amino acid usage in the B. burgdorferi genome and bias in synonymous codon usage of the translation initiation region of coding sequences were analyzed. Additionally, adaptation of B. burgdorferi to several of its hosts was analyzed in the context of synonymous codon usage. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that nucleotide content at the third synonymous position of a codon influenced the synonymous codon usage pattern, but the strand‐specific factor did not influence the synonymous codon usage pattern of B. burgdorferi. In terms of the low GC content of B. burgdorferi coding sequences, the effective number of codons (ENC) showed a significant correlation with GC3 content (at the synonymous position). For the amino acid usage pattern for B. burgdorferi, PCA showed that the strand‐specific factor did not contribute to this pattern, while the properties (aromaticity and hydrophobicity) of the amino acids themselves showed strong correlations with this pattern. Under‐represented codons, which were frequently selected in the translation initiation region, possibly play roles in regulating gene expression in B. burgdorferi. In terms of co‐evolution and synonymous codon usage patterns, adaptation of B. burgdorferi to different intermediate hosts was apparent to different degrees, and the degree of adaptation of this spirochete to wild animals was stronger than that of humans or mice.
In conclusion, these results indicate that AtlASS autolysin modulates bacterial chain length, and contributes to the full virulence of SS during infection.
LYME disease is a relatively unknown condition with an estimated 2,000 to 3,000 new cases each year in England and Wales. For an unknown disease however, anyone can develop the condition as its caught by a tick. This major symptom could mean you might have Lyme disease. Do you have it?
In conclusion, our research provides a candidate vaccine for the prevention of Aeromonas salmonicida A450 infection in rainbow trout and lays the foundation for future research on adaptive immune mechanisms associated with rainbow trout antibodies.
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical JournalAuthor(s): Hatice Demiray, Nurhayat Tabanca, Alden S. Estep, James J. Becnel, Betül DemirciAbstractStachys tmolea subsp. tmolea Boiss. is endemic to Turkey and is a species of the genus Stachys L. which is one of the largest genera of the family Lamiaceae with about 300 species. The aims of this study were to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil and n-hexane extract of S. tmolea subsp. tmolea as natural sources of insecticidal activity against the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Analysis of the essential oil by GC-FID and ...
Several decision rules combining clinical and biological parameters have been proposed to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis, but have not been evaluated in Africa. In children hospitalized with suspected central nervous system infections in Uganda, we found that the Bacterial Meningitis Score and Meningitest showed lower performance than in European children, and that a decision rule designed specifically using parameters associated with bacterial meningitis also showed inadequate diagnostic performance for clinical use.
Abstract The castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus is one of the most abundant tick species in Europe, being able to parasitize a wide number of vertebrate hosts, including mammals, birds, and reptiles. This tick species has an important role as vector of zoonotic pathogens, including the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis (i.e. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato). Here, we provide insights on a new tick-host association (i.e. I. ricinus infesting snakes) in an area recently recognized as endemic for reptile-associated zoonotic species of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.. PMID: 30794772 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Conclusion: Our results highlight the potential for climate change to have an effect on future Lyme disease risk in Canada even if the Paris Agreement’s goal to keep global warming below 2°C is achieved, although mitigation reducing emissions from RCP8.5 levels to those of RCP6.0 or less would be expected to slow tick invasion after the 2030s. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP57 Received: 02 March 2016 Revised: 26 August 2016 Accepted: 30 August 2016 Published: 31 May 2017 Address correspondence to H. Beltrami, Earth Science Department, Physical Sciences Center, PO Box 5000, 1 West St, Antigonish, NS B2G 1W5. Tel...
Summary The spirochaete (Borrelia burgdorferi) associated with Lyme disease was detected in questing ticks and rodents during a period of 18 years, 1991–2009, at five locations on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The black‐legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) was collected at varied intervals between 1991 and 2009 and examined for B. burgdorferi. The white‐footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), house mouse (Mus musculus) marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris), marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris), eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) and six‐lined racerunner (Cnemidophorus sexlineatus) were live‐trapped...
Conclusions: These results emphasize the need for follow-up investigations to determine whether the identified spatial pattern is due to: clustering of misdiagnosed cases, clustering of patients with an out-of state travel history, or presence of a clustered unknown enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi in Texas. This would enable an improved surveillance and reporting of LD in Texas.