The importance of cohort research starting early in life to understanding child health

Purpose of review The current review addresses the importance of the prospective cohort design in large, unselected populations starting early in life for understanding the origins of childhood health disorders. Recent findings Cohort studies originating in healthy populations have contributed to great advances in health, especially in cardiovascular diseases, but have only recently been applied systematically to study the origins of childhood disorders. Several large population-based pregnancy and/or birth cohorts have been developed in different parts of the world, and these are beginning to contribute to better understanding of the underlying causes of rare but important childhood disorders, such as autism. The environmental influences on child health outcomes (ECHO) Program is distinct in leveraging and building upon 84 existing cohorts to prospectively investigate the role of early-life exposures and underlying biological mechanisms in childhood health and disease, specifically perinatal conditions, obesity, neurodevelopmental disorders, asthma and related pulmonary disorders as well as optimum child health. ECHO is expected to comprise approximately 50 000 children. It is the first US study of this size and scope since the US Collaborative Perinatal Project of 1959–1966. Summary The ECHO project represents a new approach to cohort studies in childhood, efficiently making use of extant cohorts while adding new data collection elements that should permit n...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Tags: THERAPEUTICS AND TOXICOLOGY: Edited by Robert O. Wright Source Type: research

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Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Transport &Health, Volume 15Author(s): Lake Sagaris, Daniel LanfrancoAbstractAn abundant literature has examined the usefulness of “safe routes to school” programs to increase active transport (mainly walking and cycling) and with it levels of physical activity, hence health. To date, these have been applied mainly in the Global North, where they are supported by national networks and government.Conditions in developing countries differ. While the obesity epidemic is rife, the sustainability trio of walk-bike-bus/Metro account for high percentages (66% or mo...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research
Publication date: September 2019Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 26, Issue 5Author(s): Sharon Maynard, Grace Guerrier, Margaret DuffyPregnancy is an altered immunologic state in which hormonal changes impact the immune system to enable maternal tolerance of the fetus. These hormonal and immunologic changes may affect disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Conversely, lupus nephritis and its complications may adversely impact pregnancy. Systemic lupus erythematosus increases the risk of pre-eclampsia and its complications, including preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction. Comorbiditie...
Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Obesity is associated with a significant disease burden, but whether recognising as opposed to failing to recognise personal overweight is beneficial or detrimental to mental health is unclear. Here we examine the associations between perceived overweight ...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
BACKGROUND: Violence and other adversities commonly co-occur, yet are usually investigated individually. The primary objectives of this paper are to investigate: (i) the relationship between maternal exposure to violence (including childhood abuse and inti...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
In conclusion, leanness and exercise do not necessarily protect from OVX-induced weight gain. Exercise prevented weight gain in obese rats, but loss of SPA was the greatest contributor to post-OVX weight gain. Thus, understanding the mechanisms resulting in reduction in SPA after ovarian hormone loss is critical in the prevention of menopause-associated metabolic dysfunction.
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research
This article provides an overview of public health efforts by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during the past two decades to protect children’s health from environmental hazards. It highlights examples of concrete steps and accomplishments toward improving environmental protection and health outcomes achieved through public policy, rules and regulations, increased scientific understanding, and public health messaging. Additionally, examples of future challenges for better understanding and improving children’s environmental health are discussed. Citation: Firestone M, Berger M, Foos B, Etzel R....
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Perspectives Brief Communications Children's Health December 2016 Source Type: research
DISCUSSION SESSION 1: Food allergy (PD01 –PD05)PD01 Allergen-specific humoral and cellular responses in children who fail egg oral immunotherapy due to allergic reactionsMarta Vazquez-Ortiz, Mariona Pascal, Ana Maria Plaza, Manel JuanPD02 FoxP3 epigenetic features in children with cow milk allergyLorella Paparo, Rita Nocerino, Rosita Aitoro, Ilaria Langella, Antonio Amoroso, Alessia Amoroso, Carmen Di Scala, Roberto Berni CananiPD04 Combined milk and egg allergy in early childhood: let them eat cake?Santanu Maity, Giuseppina Rotiroti, Minal GandhiPD05 Introduction of complementary foods in relation to allergy and gut...
Source: Clinical and Translational Allergy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This week’s Republican National Convention has resembled nothing so much as a circus sideshow. There was the norovirus outbreak among California staffers, a plagiarized speech delivered by the potential first lady of the United States, and even a moment when former Republican presidential candidate Ben Carson linked Hillary Clinton to Lucifer. As wacky as the RNC seems, it’s only the latest example of Republican leaders’ willingness to venture into the realm of the imagination. When it comes to nearly every aspect of health, for instance, from health care to women’s issues to vaccines to mental heal...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
Conclusions Patterns of disease are changing rapidly in LMICs. Pollution-related chronic diseases are becoming more common. This shift presents a particular problem for children, who are proportionately more heavily exposed than are adults to environmental pollutants and for whom these exposures are especially dangerous. Better quantification of environmental exposures and stepped-up efforts to understand how to prevent exposures that cause disease are needed in LMICs and around the globe. To confront the global problem of disease caused by pollution, improved programs of public health monitoring and environmental protecti...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Brief Communication March 2016 Source Type: research
1Editor-in-Chief and 2Children’s Health Editor, Environmental Health Perspectives, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA About This Article open Citation: Darney SP, Dimes MM. 2016. Perspectives on the Children’s Health Collection 2015. Environ Health Perspect 124:A1–A2; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1511049 E-mail: sally.darney@nih.gov Final Publication: 1 January 2016 PDF Version (158 KB) EHP’s sixth annual Children’s Health Collection, now onlin...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Editorial January 2016 Source Type: research
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