Vascular smooth muscle contraction in hypertension

AbstractHypertension is a major risk factor for many common chronic diseases, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, vascular dementia, and chronic kidney disease. Pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development of hypertension include increased vascular resistance, determined in large part by reduced vascular diameter due to increased vascular contraction and arterial remodelling. These processes are regulated by complex-interacting systems such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, immune activation, and oxidative stress, which influence vascular smooth muscle function. Vascular smooth muscle cells are highly plastic and in pathological conditions undergo phenotypic changes from a contractile to a proliferative state. Vascular smooth muscle contraction is triggered by an increase in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), promoting actin –myosin cross-bridge formation. Growing evidence indicates that contraction is also regulated by calcium-independent mechanisms involving RhoA-Rho kinase, protein Kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling, reactive oxygen species, and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Activa tion of immune/inflammatory pathways and non-coding RNAs are also emerging as important regulators of vascular function. Vascular smooth muscle cell [Ca2+]i not only determines the contractile state but also influences activity of many calcium-dependent transcription...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

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Abstract The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is considered the standard for assessing neurologic status after an acute stroke. Currently, there is no guideline for when this assessment should be completed, nor is there consensus on how frequently or for how long.We initiated a quality improvement project that sought first to determine when and how often nurses at a variety of institutions in our multisite health care system completed the NIHSS assessment and then to identify the minimum frequency at which nurses should complete the assessment. After reviewing the literature and current practices...
Source: The American Journal of Nursing - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Am J Nurs Source Type: research
Aberrant expression of the cardiac gap junction protein connexin-43 (Cx43) has been suggested as playing a role in the development of cardiac disease in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); however, a mechanistic understanding of this association is lacking. Here, we identified a reduction of phosphorylation of Cx43 serines S325/S328/S330 in human and mouse DMD hearts. We hypothesized that hypophosphorylation of Cx43 serine-triplet triggers pathological Cx43 redistribution to the lateral sides of cardiomyocytes (remodeling). Therefore, we generated knockin mdx mice in which the Cx43 serine-triplet was ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
This study contributes to the understanding of pathologic Cx43 remodeling and encourages further research into developing strategic interventions to mitigate cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias in DMD patients.
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, mechanical, histochemical and molecular assays were conducted to understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of Ca in fruit physical properties. In a two-year field trial, grapevines were sprayed with exogenous CaCl2 throughout the fruiting season. Results showed an increase in berry Ca concentration at harvest, associated to increased fruit consistency and skin resistance. Scanning electron microscopy showed that fruits from Ca-treated plants had smoother skin surfaces than control fruits, and that microcracks encircling the lenticels were less prominent. Histochemistry assays suggested higher depositi...
Source: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
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Source: RSC - CrystEngComm latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: RSC - Chem. Commun. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
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Source: Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Source Type: news
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Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Elder Adults Source Type: news
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Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Elder Adults Source Type: news
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