Testing Genetic Modifiers of Behavior and Response to Atomoxetine in Autism Spectrum Disorder with ADHD

AbstractFrequent non-pathogenic genetic variants may act as moderators of phenotypic severity for complex disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We previously identified polymorphisms affecting mRNA expression of candidate genes, including tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), and dopamine transporter (DAT, SLC6A3). We compare genotypes and (1) clinical response to atomoxetine, (2) scores from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and (3) severity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a cohort of patients with ASD from multiple study sites. There was no association between CYP2D6 metabolizer status and atomoxetine response.TPH2 rs7305115 genotype was associated with ADI-R Restrictive/Repetitive Behavior score (p = 0.03).DBH rs1611115 genotype was associated with ADI-R Social score (p = 0.002), and Restrictive/Repetitive Behavior score (p = 0.04). TheDAT intron 8 5/6 repeat was associated with ADHD symptoms (ABC Hyperactivityp = 0.01 and SNAP ADHDp  = 0.03), replicating a previous finding. We find associations between ASD phenotypes and regulatory variants in catecholamine biosynthesis genes. This work may help guide future genetics studies related to ASD.
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research

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In conclusion, school-aged children with CP very often screened positive for ASD and/or ADHD. The prevalence of ASD and ADHD is most likely underestimated in children with CP. These screening findings require further investigations.
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In this report, we describe the prevalence and disease burden of each mental disorder for the states of India, from 1990 to 2017.MethodsWe used all accessible data from multiple sources to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders, years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) caused by these disorders for all the states of India from 1990 to 2017, as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study. We assessed the heterogeneity and time trends of mental disorders across the states of India. We grouped states on the basis of their Socio-demographic Index (SDI), whi...
Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Childhood neurodevelopmental disorders include autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), communication disorders, learning disabilities, and developmental motor coordination problems, among others (1). These conditions are typically considered to originate early in development, although there have been recent, controversial challenges to this assumption for ADHD (2). Childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, regardless of whether they are defined as diagnostic categories or traits, show strong phenotypic and genetic overlaps with each other (1).
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Naomi Tistarelli, Corrado Fagnani, Miriam Troianiello, Maria Antonietta Stazi, Walter AdrianiAbstractAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children worldwide, and also the recognition of its persistence into adulthood is increasing. While ADHD in childhood is highly heritable and mostly driven by familial factors, during adulthood it appears to show a lower heritability, even if there is not total agreement on this yet. This disorder often co-occurs with many othe...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first time that the child-specific health outcomes of preterm birth, low birth weight, asthma, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and IQ reduction have been systematically valued and presented in one place. This is an important addition to the body of health-related valuation literature as these outcomes have substantial economic costs that are not considered in most assessments of the benefits of air pollution and climate mitigation policies. In general, however, the available per-case estimates presented here did not incorporate the broad societal...
Source: Environmental Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Res Source Type: research
ConclusionThe WISC-IV profiles might help distinguishing between the cognitive characteristics of ASD and ADHD boys.
Source: Research in Developmental Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research
ConclusionsThese results support using the ADHD R-S to capture comorbid ADHD symptoms in ASD. The findings underscore the need for more thorough examination of inattentive symptoms to rule out ADHD-I.
Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
This cohort study of mother-infant dyads examines the associations between cord plasma acetaminophen metabolites and physician-diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and other developmental disabilities.
Source: JAMA Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Journal of Pharmacological SciencesAuthor(s): Kinzo Matsumoto, Hironori Fujiwara, Ryota Araki, Takeshi YabeAbstractPost-weaning social isolation of laboratory animals is known induce many behavioural and neurochemical abnormalities, which resemble neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Therefore, they can help provide a suitable animal model to investigate the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms and explore potential drugs for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. Our recent studies have demonstrated that post-weaning social isolat...
Source: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
CASE: Kevin is a 12-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability (nonverbal IQ scores in mid-40s), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder who has been followed up by a developmental-behavioral pediatrician (DBP) and a child psychologist for medication and behavioral management since he was 4 years old. Kevin was placed in the care of his great-great-aunt shortly after he turned 2 years of age because of concerns of neglect. She is now his legal guardian. Kevin is predominately nonverbal but does use a few single words to make requests or label items. He attends a public school and receives f...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics - Category: Child Development Tags: Challenging Case Source Type: research
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