Knowing when to screen … and when to quit

Follow me on Twitter @RobShmerling Let us sing the praises of good medical screening tests. These are the tests that can detect medical problems before they become untreatable and before they cause complications or even death. Even better are those screening tests that detect “predisease” — abnormalities that aren’t dangerous on their own but can lead to problems later. According to the US Preventive Services Task Force, relatively few screening tests are considered good enough to routinely recommend for adults, including mammography for breast cancer (women) Pap smear for cervical cancer (women) bone density testing for osteoporosis — every 2 to 4 years if at least age 65 (women) colonoscopy — starting at age 50 and repeating every 10 years until age 75. And blood tests for: hepatitis C for all adults born between 1945 and 1965 HIV for adolescents and adults ages 15 to 65 years and all pregnant women lipid screening for all adolescents and adults ages 15 to 65 years. Many of these tests are recommended in younger adults or if risk factors for disease are present. For example, screening tests for osteoporosis may be recommended for a woman younger than age 65 if she takes medications (such as corticosteroids) linked to osteoporosis. Other tests are offered for more select groups. For example, there are recommendations to test the urine of women for infection during early pregnancy and to screen adults for diabetes if they are overweight...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Cancer Health Prevention Screening Source Type: blogs

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This article presents a unique 3D biocompatible Aluminum-based quantum structure (QS) for in vitro cancer detection using Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS). The Al-based QSs fabricated using ultrashort pulsed laser are of two distinct surface characters, wrinkled and smooth spherical. The limit of detection for chemical sensing of Crystal Violet and Rhodamine 6G by the Al-QS was driven up to single molecule sensing (femtomolar concentration). Biological sensing of cysteine, a disease biomarker and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a cancer biomarker was also tested by the Al-QS. The ability of in vitro cell detection ...
Source: Biosensors and Bioelectronics - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
In this study, four different weight% of Punica granatum fruit peel extract were used as green stabilizers to synthesize IONPs followed by a series of characterization experiments and in vitro anticancer evaluation. Results revealed that all synthesized IONPs have high degree of crystallinity and purity. The optimum saturation magnetization, and hydrodynamic size were found to be ∼69 emu.g−1, and 26.52 nm, respectively. Morphological studies demonstrated that adding peel extract decreased size of NPs with the average particle size below 11 nm. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the IONPs were not react...
Source: Journal of Molecular Structure - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 March 2020Source: Journal of Molecular Structure, Volume 1204Author(s): A.D. Herrera-España, J. Us-Martín, S. Hernández-Ortega, G. Mirón-López, L. Quijano, J.R. Villanueva-Toledo, G.J. Mena-RejónAbstractThe structural modification of natural products has shown to be a remarkable tool in the generation of novel bioactive molecules. Herein, the synthesis, structural analysis and anticancer activity of the novel triterpenoid thiazole 3 is reported. The synthesis was carried out through the bromination of ochraceolide A (1) and the subsequent heterocyclic condensat...
Source: Journal of Molecular Structure - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Chemico-Biological InteractionsAuthor(s): Ryan N. Serio, Lorraine J. GudasAbstractEthanol (EtOH) is a recreationally ingested compound that is both teratogenic and carcinogenic in humans. Because of its abundant consumption worldwide and the vital role of stem cells in the formation of birth defects and cancers, delineating the effects of EtOH on stem cell function is currently an active and urgent pursuit of scientific investigation to explicate some of the mechanisms contributing to EtOH toxicity. Stem cells represent a primordial, undifferentiated phase of devel...
Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Sensors and Actuators B: ChemicalAuthor(s): Xinxin Shi, Yalei Hu, Hong-Min Meng, Jie Yang, Lingbo Qu, Xiao-Bing Zhang, Zhaohui LiAbstractIntracellular polarity has a large impact on the activity of a series of biomolecules or maintain the function of particular domains. Therefore, monitoring the changing of intracellular polarity can great improve the understanding its functions in living cell level. Herein, by employing p-phenylenediamine as precursor, we prepared a red emissive carbon dots based nanoprobe for real-time sensing polarity in living cells. With the i...
Source: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
This study demonstrates that the concentrations of PM-bound PAHs are mutagenic and that the Excess Cancer Risks exceed the USEPA standard limits. PMs cause cytotoxicity and can also induce genotoxicity to human health analyzed by cell culture and gel electrophoresis. This study helps to promote research to evaluate the PMs bound PHEs toxicity in diverse human cell lines and also their relationship with climatic factors as well as quantitative source apportionment for mitigation purposes.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
In this study, we verified that ferroptosis occurred in animal models of arsenic-induced pancreatic dysfunction through assessing proferroptotic markers and morphological changes in mitochondria. In vitro, arsenic caused execution of ferroptosis in a dose-dependent manner, which could be significantly reduced by ferrostatin-1. Additionally, arsenic damaged mitochondria manifested as diminishing of mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced cytochrome c level and production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (MtROS) in MIN6 cells. Using the Mito-TEMPO, we found the autophagy level and subsequent ferroptotic cell death ...
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Authors: Escudero-Hernández C, Bernardo D, Arranz E, Garrote JA Abstract Celiac disease (CeD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are chronic gastrointestinal disorders of inflammatory origin that develop in response to environmental triggers in genetically predisposed individuals. CeD localizes in the duodenal mucosa, where intolerance develops to dietary gluten from wheat, barley, rye, and some varieties of oats. IBD, in turn, is subdivided primarily into Crohn's disease (CD) and colitis, with ulcerative colitis (UC) being the most thoroughly investigated form. PMID: 31830796 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Rev Esp Enferm Dig Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The use of metformin was associated with a reduced risk of HCC, and it may be a relevant factor for preventing HCC in diabetic patients. PMID: 31836424 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
This study aimed to review the outcomes of percutaneous treatment with a mother-child technique in the treatment of symptomatic central venous stenosis (CVS) and central venous occlusion (CVO) in patients on hemodialysis.MethodsData were collected retrospectively and included all consecutive patients with CVS or CVO who were treated with percutaneous angioplasty and stenting. The occlusive lesions were crossed using the mother-child technique with an angiographic catheter-in-guiding catheter system.ResultsA total of 36 patients with symptomatic CVS and 45 patients with total CVO were included. The average age and gender co...
Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
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