Axon Initial Segment Structural Plasticity is Involved in Seizure Susceptibility in a Rat Model of Cortical Dysplasia.

Axon Initial Segment Structural Plasticity is Involved in Seizure Susceptibility in a Rat Model of Cortical Dysplasia. Neurochem Res. 2018 Feb 21;: Authors: Yue ZW, Wang YL, Xiao B, Feng L Abstract Cortical dysplasia is the most common etiology of intractable epilepsy. Both excitability changes in cortical neurons and neural network reconstitution play a role in cortical dysplasia epileptogenesis. Recent research shows that the axon initial segment, a subcompartment of the neuron important to the shaping of action potentials, adjusts its position in response to changes in input, which contributes to neuronal excitability and local circuit balance. It is unknown whether axon initial segment plasticity occurs in neurons involved in seizure susceptibility in cortical dysplasia. Here, we developed a "Carmustine"- "pilocarpine" rat model of cortical dysplasia and show that it exhibits a lower seizure threshold, as indicated by behavior studies and electroencephalogram monitoring. Using immunofluorescence, we measured the axon initial segment positions of deep L5 somatosensory neurons and show that it is positioned closer to the soma after acute seizure, and that this displacement is sustained in the chronic phase. We then show that Nifedipine has a dose-dependent protective effect against axon initial segment displacement and increased seizure susceptibility. These findings further our understanding of the pathophysiology of seizures in co...
Source: Neurochemical Research - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Related Links:

This article intends to verify the association of dysfunctional beliefs of personality disorders with the executive performance in people with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME).MethodsFifty-two patients (35 women, 67.3%) with JME aged 18–50 yrs. (32.3 ± 9.7) were evaluated between May 2017 and April 2018 and compared with controls. All subjects were submitted to the Personality Beliefs Questionnaire (PBQ) (Beck &Beck, 1991; Savoia et al., 2006), Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DQ; Wilson et al., 1996; Macuglia et al., 2016), estimated intelligence quotient (IQ) using Vocabulary and Block Design tests, at...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This case indicates the need for early diagnosis and multidisciplinary action to achieve satisfactory quality of life in patients with 18q- syndrome. PMID: 32087092 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neuroendocrinology Letters - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Neuro Endocrinol Lett Source Type: research
We reported the case of a patient diagnosed with DLGNT who presented with language developmental delay and positive but subtle changes in imaging two years before the emergence of typical clinical symptoms. Few studies were conducted on early tumor symptoms due to the limited number of cases. We hypothesized that with the existence of pre-tumor symptoms, language developmental delay may be related to tumor. PMID: 32087090 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neuroendocrinology Letters - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Neuro Endocrinol Lett Source Type: research
Conclusion and significanceThe knowledge of structure-function relationships between different areas of the brain is necessary for characterizing the underlying dynamics. Hence, features based on EBC can provide a more reliable automatic seizure detection approach.
Source: Biomedical Signal Processing and Control - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: SeizureAuthor(s): Pornchai Sathirapanya, Amika Praipanapong, Chanon Kongkamol, Pensri ChongphattararotAbstractPurposeTo identify the predictors of seizure recurrence after a first seizure (FS) presentation to an emergency service.MethodsThe clinical characteristics of FS patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) of our university hospital from January 2001 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Recurrence of seizures following the FS was classified as: early recurrence (0-1 month), intermediate recurrence (>1-3 months), and late recurrence (&...
Source: Seizure - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsSeizure semiology is heterogeneous in pure insular-onset epilepsy. Differences between the anterior and posterior insular seizures reflect the functional organization of the insula. Particularly, the different types of motor symptoms may help to distinguish anterior from posterior insular seizure onset.
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In this study, we determined the efficacy of ACTON PROLONGATUM® (AP; Ferring Pharmaceuticals) in comparison with Acthar® Gel (Mallinckrodt) and full 39 amino-acid rat ACTH molecule (Genscript) in the rodent model of IS consisting of prenatal priming with betamethasone and repeated postnatal trigger of spasms with N-methyl-d-aspartate. Treatment with these ACTH varieties was given on postnatal days (P)12, P13, and P14 in a prospective test (treatment onset on P12 AFTER induction of spasms). Two independent arms were investigated: subcutaneous (SC) and intramuscular (IM) deliveries that were evaluated separately. In ...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: April 2020Source: Epilepsy &Behavior, Volume 105Author(s): Vivek Sabharwal, Mugilan Poongkunran, Murad Talahma, Ifeanyi O. Iwuchukwu, Eugene Ramsay, Fawad Khan, Uma Menon, Giuseppe Ciccotto, Namir Khandker, Harold McGradeAbstractBackgroundTherapeutic hypothermia as a potent nonpharmacologic antiseizure therapy has been investigated experimentally in animal models and humans. Although induced hypothermia has been shown to be neuroprotective in acute convulsive status epilepticus, whether its use will translate into improved outcomes for patients with super-refractory nonconvulsive status epilepticus (S...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and PNES-epilepsy coexistence within all video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring unit (VEMU) referrals and to identify semiological and electrophysiological features to differentiate patients with PNES-epilepsy coexistence from PNES-only.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed medical files, VEMU reports, and videos of 1983 adult patients. Demographical, historical, clinical, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological parameters of all patients were recorded. We classified patients into five groups as definite PNES-only, definite PNES-e...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsSeizure detection devices provide moderate or greater anxiety reduction among the majority of people with epilepsy and their caregivers, but current translatability into improvements in overall HR-QOL may be limited. Affordability and technological support are potential barriers to maximizing benefit equally among the epilepsy community. These considerations may be useful to help guide future device development and inform patient–clinician discussions on device usage and HR-QOL.
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
More News: Brain | Carisoprodol | Epilepsy | Neurology | Neuroscience | Nifedipine | Soma | Study