Intracellular TLR7 is activated in human oligodendrocytes in response to Borrelia burgdorferi exposure

Publication date: 3 April 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 671 Author(s): Geetha Parthasarathy, Mario T. Philipp Lyme neuroborreliosis, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, may affect the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. In previous studies, we showed that human oligodendrocytes exposed to the bacteria undergo apoptosis in an inflammatory environment, and that inflammatory pathways trigger cell-death pathways. We further demonstrated that several receptor tyrosine kinases were involved in triggering downstream effects, leading to inflammation and apoptosis. Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR5, which are commonly studied receptors in Lyme disease, only had a minimal role in inflammatory processes. To delineate the role of other TLRs, if any, real-time RT-PCR array experiments were carried out as an initial screen. Along with several inflammatory genes, TLR7 mRNA was upregulated in cells exposed to B. burgdorferi. Further analysis by immunohistochemistry showed that the TLR7 protein is present in readily detectable amounts, although no discernible differences could be seen between medium and B. burgdorferi-exposed cells by this technique. Nevertheless, use of specific inhibitors and siRNA showed that TLR7 is involved in inducing IL-6 and CCL2 in a dose dependent manner, and likely CXCL8. Triggering an intracellular receptor such as TLR7, which senses RNA, in typically non-phagocytic oligodendrocytes indicates either a niche for the bacter...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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We report the results of gene expression profiling via RNA-sequencing of primary human choroid plexus epithelial cells in vitro that were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Epithelial cells were cultured with B. burgdorferi for 48 hours prior to RNA isolation. Following high-throughput sequencing via Illumina HiSeq 4000, a total of 258 differentially expressed genes were identified. Subsequent data analysis indicates an inflammatory and immune response generated by the epithelial cells following infection, marked by chemotactic cytokines and interferon stimulated genes. Several genes a...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research
We examined the effect of a positive serostatus at baseline for selected pathogens associated with chronic infections (Helicobacter pylori,Borrelia burgdorferi sensulato,Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus 1/2, and human herpesvirus 6) on all-cause mortality with multivariable parametric survival models. We found a reduced survival time in individuals with a positive serostatus forHelicobacter pylori (accelerated failure time (AFT) − 15.92, 95% CI − 29.96; − 1.88), cytomegalovirus (AFT − 22.81, 95% CI − 36.41; −&...
Source: AGE - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2020Source: The Veterinary JournalAuthor(s): A.L. Hatke, D.R. Green, K. Stasiak, R.T. Marconi
Source: The Veterinary Journal - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Ahead of Print.
Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Compared to the standard two-tiered testing (STTT) algorithm for Lyme disease serology using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by Western blotting, data from the United States suggest that a modified two-tiered testing (MTTT) algorithm employing two EIAs has improved sensitivity to detect early localized Borrelia burgdorferi infections without compromising specificity. From 2011 to 2014, in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, where Lyme disease is hyperendemic, sera submitted for Lyme disease testing were subjected to a whole-cell EIA, followed by C6 EIA and subsequently IgM and/or IgG immunoblots on sera with EIA-pos...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Immunoassays Source Type: research
A series of cases in the Northeast of the US during 2013 –2015 described a new Borrelia species, Borrelia miyamotoi, which is transmitted by the same tick species that transmits Lyme disease and causes a relapsing...
Source: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Short report Source Type: research
Mitochondria, chloroplasts and several species of bacteria have outer membrane proteins (OMPs) that perform many essential biological functions. The β -barrel assembly machinery (BAM) complex is one of the OMPs of Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogenic spirochete that causes Lyme disease, and its BamA component (BbBamA) includes a C-terminal β -barrel domain and five N-terminal periplasmic polypeptide-transport-associated (POTRA) domains, which together perform a central transport function. In the current work, the production, crystallization and X-ray analysis of the three N-terminal POTRA domains of BbBamA (BbBam...
Source: Acta Crystallographica Section F - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Borrelia burgdorferi BbBamA-POTRA P1 – P3 crystallization research communications Source Type: research
Lyme disease (LD) is an increasing public health problem. Current laboratory testing is insensitive in early infection, the stage at which appropriate treatment is most effective in preventing disease sequelae. The Lyme Disease Biobank (LDB) collects samples from individuals with symptoms consistent with early LD presenting with or without erythema migrans (EM) or an annular, expanding skin lesion and uninfected individuals from areas of endemicity. Samples were collected from 550 participants (298 cases and 252 controls) according to institutional review board-approved protocols and shipped to a centralized biorepository....
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Immunoassays Source Type: research
In this study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was employed to investigate the local population structure of B. garinii in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The study took place in a natural wetland in Slovakia, temporally encompassing spring and autumn bird migration periods as well as the breeding period of resident birds. In total, we examined 369 and 255 ticks collected from 78 birds and local vegetation, respectively. B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 43.4% (160/369) of ticks recovered from birds and in 26.3% (67/255) of questing ticks, respectively. Considering the ticks from bird hosts, the highest prevalence was found for ...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Borrelia burgdorferi encodes a functional homolog of canonical Lon protease termed Lon-2. In addition, B. burgdorferi encodes a second Lon homolog called Lon-1. Recent studies suggest that Lon-1 may function differently from the prototypical Lon protease. However, the function of Lon-1 in B. burgdorferi biology remains virtually unknown. Particularly, the contribution of Lon-1 to B. burgdorferi fitness and infection remains hitherto unexplored. Herein, we show that Lon-1 plays a critical role for the infection of B. burgdorferi in a mammalian host. We found that lon-1 was highly expressed during animal infection, implying ...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Molecular Pathogenesis Source Type: research
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