A Review of Mathematical Models for Muscular Dystrophy: A Systems Biology Approach
Discussion With new developments in computational power and data availability, a growing amount of research is using a systems biology approach to understand pathogenesis and progression of disease. Effective and integrated in vitro and in silico models could inform biological phenomena, even without the need of a living subject. For instance, over the last few decades, collagen hydrogel with muscle derived cells (CHMDCs) have promised to revolutionize in vitro experiments and tissue engineering. For CHMDCs to reach the envisioned use, verification by use of mathematical simulations are needed. Recently while examining shape and design, Hodgson (2015)80 used a combination finite elements and agent based analysis to illustrate the lines of principle strain and cell migration in CHMDCs confirming earlier in vitro work by Smith et al. (2012)81 . As MD is a rare disorder, the use of mathematical models could help elucidate the underlining mechanisms of the disease that might not be easily detectable given the limited subject pool. Although genetic studies have implicated genes as the cause of many types of MD, relatively little is know about about common pathways between these genes that may affect pathogenesis and create similar phenotypes; this necessitates the use of mathematical models describing GRNs (Gene Section). Common genes like Dik1, Dusp13, and Casq21623and there downstream pathways provide future prospects for therapeutic intervention. Mitochondrial and immunologic...
ConclusionThe finding suggested that LC had the ability to protect neurons by promoting the endogenous proliferation of neuroblast and production of neural differentiation factor in rats after ischemia injury. Meanwhile, LC can anti-neuroinflammation, which is important for the treatment of neuron injury. Accordingly, LC perhaps a promising medicine for neuron damage therapy after cerebral ischemia.Graphical abstract
ConclusionThe earlier transition from inflammatory to resident macrophage might be one reason for the positive effect of LIPUS on spinal fusion.Graphical abstract
Conclusions Although both types of flaps offer a satisfactory approach for finger reconstruction with small-to-medium defects, FDUAP flaps are more suitable for such operations because of the better sensory reconstruction and aesthetic results.
Conclusions Using 3 validated scar assessment scales, no significant difference was found between the extended Mohler and Millard techniques in terms of lip or nose scars.
Conclusions Careful patient selection with presurgical planning using computer-assisted surgical simulation is essential in achieving successful outcomes in correcting dentofacial deformities while managing maxillofacial fractures. This combined technique is a viable option in the surgical management of facial fractures in patients with dentofacial deformities.
The reconstruction of finger defects requires improved functional outcomes and acceptable esthetic outcomes, and small free flaps present a good alternative technique for repairing finger skin defects. From January 2006 to December 2018, we investigated the number and diameter of proximal digital artery perforators, medial plantar artery perforators, and peroneal proper plantar digital arteries of the hallux by dissection and then transplanted free digital arterial perforator flaps, free medial plantar flaps, and free peroneal flaps from the hallux to repair small finger skin defects. The number (SD) of perforators from th...
Conclusions The flow-through chimeric ALTP flap can be used for 1-stage reconstruction of 3-dimensional soft tissue defects and vascular gap. It is feasible for managing complex injuries of both the upper and lower extremities in emergency settings.
Conclusions While there was a low incidence of upper extremity nerve injuries associated with upper extremity trauma, the ulnar nerve was most frequently injured. Males were twice as likely to sustain a traumatic upper extremity nerve injury, with laceration being the most common mechanism of injury. The average ED cost associated with upper extremity nerve injuries in the United States was determined to be approximately $5779.
This study compares the postoperative pain and opioid use in patients managed for surgery with general anesthesia (GA) with patients who were given combined epidural and general anesthesia (E/GA) with continuing postoperative epidural analgesia. Methods All patients who underwent penile inversion vaginoplasty between May of 2016 and May of 2018 under the care of single surgeon were identified retrospectively, 18 patients of which met the inclusion criteria. A retrospective chart review was conducted. Outcome measures were postoperative pain using visual analog scale, type and dosage of postoperatively administered intra...
Conclusions We present a quick, simple, and affordable method to decellularize a muscle flap through the vascular network. Our proposed method is efficient and can be completed in a significantly shorter time when compared with other methods. It is also safe and does not affect integrity of tissue, and this is essential for a reliable recellularization.
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