Experimental infection by microparasites affects the oxidative balance in their avian reservoir host the blackbird Turdus merula

Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Ana Cláudia Norte, David Costantini, Pedro Miguel Araújo, Marcel Eens, Jaime Albino Ramos, Dieter Heylen By draining resources, microparasites can negatively affect the host fitness, which in turn can result in reduced transmission when virulence leads to reductions in host population size. Therefore, for a microparasite to persist in nature, the level of harm it can do to its host is expected to be limited. We tested this hypothesis for tick-borne Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infections in the blackbird Turdus merula, one of the most important avian reservoir hosts in Europe. Experimental and observational data were combined to examine the physiological effects caused by B. burgdorferi s.l. infection in blackbirds. Pathogen-free blackbirds were exposed to B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected Ixodes ricinus and I. frontalis nymphs, and compared with a control group (exposed to naïve laboratory-derived I. ricinus nymphs). Their physiological status was evaluated before and after infection with B. burgdorferi s.l., through a set of immunological (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, haptoglobin, white blood cell count and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio), oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase activity, protein carbonyls and nitric oxide) and general body condition variables (body condition, glucose and haematocrit). Infected males showed higher levels of oxidative...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 14 December 2018Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): George Psevdos, Teresa Khoo, Robert Chow, Christopher L Romano, Scott CampbellAbstractIn North America, Lyme disease (LD) is caused predominantly by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferisensu stricto, and is transmitted by blacklegged ticks. Long Island, New York, is highly endemic for the disease. The C6 peptide (C6P) is currently used as a screening test for LD in our institution. Our objective was to examine how screening with C6P concorded with diagnosis of LD at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northport, Long Island. ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2018Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Milana Troskie, Lourens de Villiers, Andrew Leisewitz, Marinda C. Oosthuizen, Melvyn QuanAbstractCanine babesiosis is caused by tick-transmitted intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites occurring worldwide. In southern Africa, babesiosis is caused by Babesia rossi and B. vogeli and is one of the most common and important infectious diseases affecting dogs. There is no reliable, rapid and sensitive method for the detection of these parasites, especially when parasitaemia is low. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive an...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
yai K Abstract SUMMARYThe tick-borne pathogen Powassan virus is a rare cause of encephalitis in North America and the Russian Far East. The number of documented cases described since the discovery of Powassan virus in 1958 may be 50% of survivors make Powassan virus a medical concern requiring the attention of public health authorities and clinicians. The medical importance of Powassan virus justifies more research on developing specific and effective treatments and prevention and control measures. PMID: 30541872 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research
In this study, we have evaluated the effects of supplementation of chicken diets with organic (Selenium Enriched Yeast; SEY) and inorganic selenium (Sodium Selenite; SS) on low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (H9N2) shedding in the cloacal and oropharyngeal swab samples as well as examined the expression of immune related genes. Chickens were fed two doses (High- 0.30 mg/kg of feed; Low- 0.15 mg/kg of feed) of selenium supplementation for 2 weeks followed by low pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge. Our results showed that the cloacal shedding of virus in all the selenium supplemented groups was ...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In this study, bird species migrating through Bulgaria were investigated as carriers of zoonotic pathogens. In total, 706 birds belonging to 46 species were checked for the presence of various bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter, Yersin ia, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Francisella tularensis, Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Brucella spp.). From 673 birds we investigated fecal samples, from the remaining 33, blood samples. We detected Campylobacter 16S rDNA gene in 1.3% of birds, but no ne were of pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli species. Escherichia coli 1...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we used this chamber model and showed that I. scapularis ticks will not only acquire bovine blood but human and quail blood as well. The latter two are the incidental host and an avian host of Lyme borreliae, respectively. We also investigated the roles that BBA52 and Lp6.6 play in promoting spirochete survival in nymphal ticks fed on human or quail blood. After feeding on human blood, spirochete burdens in ticks infected with an lp6.6-deficient B. burgdorferi were significantly reduced, while bba52-deficient spirochete burdens in ticks remained unchanged, similar to the wild-type strain. No strain showed a ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results show that the pheasants had developed antibodies to the investigated tick-borne agents. For this reason, they seem to be involved in the epidemiology of the studied tick-borne bacteria. PMID: 28378988 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Ann Agric Environ Med Source Type: research
Mepron, a thick liquid antimicrobial drug used to treat Babesia and malaria, as well as a fungal infection called Pneumocystitis carinii. In 2011, the United Kingdom stopped requiring that dogs brought into the country be inspected for ticks. Earlier this year, several dogs tested positive for babesia, a malaria-like disease transmitted to ticks that previously had only been found in foreign. These dogs had never left the U.K. While babesiosis is a new worry to U.K. dog owners, it's been a threat to human beings for years -- it just hasn't become a health-scare-of-the-week like Zika, West Nile, avian and swine flu. Most...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Conclusion: Our study suggests that the tick, and not the pathogen, controls the early stages of host choice behaviour.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
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