Brain scan and artificial intelligence could help predict whether OCD will improve with treatment

Washing hands needlessly dozens of times of day. Spending so much time perfecting schoolwork that it never gets turned in.These are typical behaviors for people with obsessive compulsive disorder, or OCD, a lifelong illness marked by repetitive thoughts and actions that can seriously impair work performance, relationships and quality of life. OCD is most commonly treated with medication and a form of psychotherapy called cognitive behavioral therapy. Unfortunately, cognitive behavioral therapy does not help everyone with OCD, and the treatment can be expensive and time-consuming.Now, UCLA researchers have developed a way to use brain scans and machine learning — a form of artificial intelligence — to predict whether people with OCD will benefit from cognitive behavior therapy. The technique could help improve the overall success rate of cognitive behavioral therapy, and it could enable therapists to tailor treatment to each patient.A paper describing the work appears in the Feb. 12 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.“If the results of this study are replicated in future studies, the methods we used could potentially give clinicians a new predictive tool,” said Nicco Reggente, a UCLA doctoral student and the study’s first author. “If a patient is predicted to be a non-responder to cognitive behavioral th erapy, clinicians could pursue different options.”Using a functional MRI machine, or fMRI, the researchers scanned the b...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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CONCLUSIONS: PIU is associated with decrements across a range of neuropsychological domains, irrespective of geographical location, supporting its cross-cultural and biological validity. These findings also suggest a common neurobiological vulnerability across PIU behaviours, including gaming, rather than a dissimilar neurocognitive profile for internet gaming disorder.Declaration of interestS.R.C. consults for Cambridge Cognition and Shire. K.I.'s research activities were supported by Health Education East of England Higher Training Special interest sessions. A.E.G.'s research has been funded by Innovational grant (VIDI-s...
Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Br J Psychiatry Source Type: research
The cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit has been traditionally implicated in the underlying neural pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The CSTC involves parallel, partly segregated, but intrinsically communicating circuits involved in motor, cognitive, affective, and motivational processes.1,2
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Objective The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment targeting either supplementary motor area (SMA) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) among patients with OCD in real-world clinical practice settings. Also, the present study explored for potential predictors of response to rTMS treatment. Methods Retrospective review and analysis of records of 79 patients with medication-refractory OCD, all of whom had received 20 sessions of 1-Hz rTMS as part of routine clinical care. Of 79 patients, 46 received rTMS over the bilateral SMA and 33 over the left OFC....
Source: The Journal of ECT - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
No abstract available
Source: The Journal of ECT - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This study indicates a need for clinicians to be mindful that hoarding manifests in many forms of mental illness and is not limited to OCD alone. PMID: 30773455 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Geriatr Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results support the use of the Y-BOCS-II among individuals from China. Future study by an independent group is necessary to replicate these findings, as well as investigate interrater reliability and treatment sensitivity. PMID: 30785537 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Braz J Psychiatry Source Type: research
This study sought to demonstrate that parents perceive both internalizing and externalizing behaviors in childhood OCD by examining the factor structure of the Child Obsessive-Compulsive Externalizing/Internalizing Scale (COCEIS), a parent-report questionnaire intended to measure these constructs. This study also investigated clinical correlates of internalizing and externalizing factors in the COCEIS. A factor analysis of questionnaire responses from 122 parents of youth with OCD revealed both externalizing and internalizing factors in the COCEIS. Externalizing behaviors in childhood OCD were associated with other, co-occ...
Source: Child Psychiatry and Human Development - Category: Child Development Authors: Tags: Child Psychiatry Hum Dev Source Type: research
Authors: Mannino G Abstract While psychopathological phenomena of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been well described some time ago, instead there is still need for a deeper understanding of mechanisms underlying psychopathological phenomena themselves. About this, a recently proposed concept - the 'Retrospective Identification of Motivations and Inclinations' (RIMI) - seems to have a promising explanatory capacity about different aspects of obsessive-compulsive disorder. For example, as shown elsewhere, it appears to shed new light on the so-called 'fear of self' in OCD. In this paper, the role of RIMI in...
Source: Rivista di Psichiatria - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Riv Psichiatr Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our results, although preliminary, seem to suggest that a longer duration of untreated illness in OCD is associated with poorer outcome in terms of response to SRI treatments. It is imperative to do all the possible to shorten the DUI, both by improving access to mental health services, improving the ability of primary care physicians and mental health professionals to recognize OCD, and disseminate best-practice prescription guidelines. PMID: 30763828 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Psychiatry Source Type: research
Authors: Avasthi A, Sharma A, Grover S PMID: 30745705 [PubMed]
Source: Indian Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Indian J Psychiatry Source Type: research
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