FOXO in Neural Cells and Diseases of the Nervous System.

FOXO in Neural Cells and Diseases of the Nervous System. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2018;127:105-118 Authors: Santo EE, Paik J Abstract The evolutionarily conserved FOXO family of transcription factors has emerged as a significant arbiter of neural cell fate and function in mammals. From the neural stem cell (NSC) state through mature neurons under both physiological and pathological conditions, they have been found to modulate neural cell survival, stress responses, lineage commitment, and neuronal signaling. Lineage-specific FOXO knockout mice have provided an invaluable tool for the dissection of FOXO biology in the nervous system. Within the NSC compartments of the brain, FOXOs are required for the maintenance of NSC quiescence and for the clearance of reactive oxygen species. Within mature neurons, FOXO transcriptional activity is essential for the prevention of age-dependent axonal degeneration. Acutely, FOXO3 has been found to cause axonal degeneration upon withdrawal of neurotrophic factors. In more active neural signaling, FOXO6 promotes increased dendritic spine density of hippocampal neurons and is required for the consolidation of memories. In addition to the central nervous system (CNS), FOXOs also influence the functionality of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). FOXO1 knockout within the PNS results in a reduction of sympathetic tone and decreased levels of brain-derived norepinephrine and lower energy expenditure. FOXO3 knockout mice have impair...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

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Objectives: Propofol-based sedation may increase hemodynamic instability by decreasing vascular tone and venous return. Incremental exogenous catecholamines doses may be required to counteract such effects, aggravating the deleterious effects of sympathetic overstimulation. α-2 adrenergic agonists have been reported to decrease norepinephrine requirements in experimental septic shock. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that switching from sedation with propofol to the α-2 agonist dexmedetomidine may decrease norepinephrine doses in septic shock. Design: Prospective open-label crossover ...
Source: Critical Care Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: TGF-β1 triggered proliferation via accelerating G1/S cell cycle transition in BMSCs. The addition of TGF-β1 can activate Akt-mTOR-S6K1 pathway. Additionally, FAK was found to be involved in the process. Upon adding the FAK inhibitor, the activation of Akt-mTOR-S6K1 and TGF-β1-induced cell proliferation were both abrogated. Together, an insight understanding of how TGF-β1 influences BMSCs proliferation is achieved. This study provides a possible strategy of supplementing TGF-β1 in serum-free medium for in vitro expansion, which eventually would advance the production of clinical-grade MS...
Source: Connective Tissue Research - Category: Research Tags: Connect Tissue Res Source Type: research
This findings of this study support an association between functional performance and Alzheimer disease neuroimaging biomarkers very early in the dementia pathophysiology.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery Journal Article Source Type: news
Authors: Louie R PMID: 30642438 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research
Authors: McCleery J, Flicker L, Richard E, Quinn TJ PMID: 30642437 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research
Authors: Sweeney MD, Montagne A, Sagare AP, Nation DA, Schneider LS, Chui HC, Harrington MG, Pa J, Law M, Wang DJJ, Jacobs RE, Doubal FN, Ramirez J, Black SE, Nedergaard M, Benveniste H, Dichgans M, Iadecola C, Love S, Bath PM, Markus HS, Salman RA, Allan SM, Quinn TJ, Kalaria RN, Werring DJ, Carare RO, Touyz RM, Williams SCR, Moskowitz MA, Katusic ZS, Lutz SE, Lazarov O, Minshall RD, Rehman J, Davis TP, Wellington CL, González HM, Yuan C, Lockhart SN, Hughes TM, Chen CLH, Sachdev P, O'Brien JT, Skoog I, Pantoni L, Gustafson DR, Biessels GJ, Wallin A, Smith EE, Mok V, Wong A, Passmore P, Barkof F, Muller M, Breteler...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research
"Alzheimer's disease" is neither "Alzheimer's clinical syndrome" nor "dementia". Alzheimers Dement. 2019 Jan;15(1):153-157 Authors: Jagust W, Jack CR, Bennett DA, Blennow K, Haeberlein SB, Holtzman DM, Jessen F, Karlawish J, Liu E, Molinuevo JL, Montine T, Phelps C, Rankin KP, Rowe CC, Scheltens P, Siemers E, Sperling R PMID: 30642435 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research
In this study, we analyzed the role of these cells in modifying the pathological microenvironment present in knee osteoarthritis. This is an interventional, prospective, randomized, controlled study. Starting from June 2017, 39 patients with grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis of Kellgren-Lawrence were enrolled, aged between 45 and 75 years, with pain greater than or equal to 6 according to the VAS scale, without ligament instability, with an axial deviation not greater than 10° and with a BMI between 18 and 30. The control group underwent an arthroscopic debridement, while the experimental group underwent an arthrosc...
Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research
Authors: Tessaro I, Di Giancamillo A, Benasciutti E, Nguyen VT, Polito U, Mangiavini L, Peretti GM Abstract Meniscus repair is still a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons as this tissue has a scarce healing potential due to the limited vascularization and to the lack of progenitor cells. Lately, several tissue engineering strategies combining cells and scaffolds have been developed. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represent a novel cell source for meniscus repair as they are easy to harvest, and they possess an intrinsic chondrogenic potential. The aim of our study was to analyze and compare the chondrogenic diffe...
Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research
Authors: Vicenti G, Bizzoca D, Caruso I, Nappi VS, Giancaspro G, Carrozzo M, Moretti B Abstract Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are one of the most serious and devastating complication of diabetes mellitus, affecting about 15% of diabetic patients. This review describes the innovative treatment options currently available in the treatment of non-healing DFUs. The use of Platelet-Rich-Plasma (PRP) is a safe and valid approach in the treatment of DFUs. However, the methods used to obtain and prepare autologous PRP vary between the studies, thus further evidences are eagerly awaited. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal ste...
Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research
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