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FOXO in Neural Cells and Diseases of the Nervous System.

FOXO in Neural Cells and Diseases of the Nervous System. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2018;127:105-118 Authors: Santo EE, Paik J Abstract The evolutionarily conserved FOXO family of transcription factors has emerged as a significant arbiter of neural cell fate and function in mammals. From the neural stem cell (NSC) state through mature neurons under both physiological and pathological conditions, they have been found to modulate neural cell survival, stress responses, lineage commitment, and neuronal signaling. Lineage-specific FOXO knockout mice have provided an invaluable tool for the dissection of FOXO biology in the nervous system. Within the NSC compartments of the brain, FOXOs are required for the maintenance of NSC quiescence and for the clearance of reactive oxygen species. Within mature neurons, FOXO transcriptional activity is essential for the prevention of age-dependent axonal degeneration. Acutely, FOXO3 has been found to cause axonal degeneration upon withdrawal of neurotrophic factors. In more active neural signaling, FOXO6 promotes increased dendritic spine density of hippocampal neurons and is required for the consolidation of memories. In addition to the central nervous system (CNS), FOXOs also influence the functionality of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). FOXO1 knockout within the PNS results in a reduction of sympathetic tone and decreased levels of brain-derived norepinephrine and lower energy expenditure. FOXO3 knockout mice have impair...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

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