FOXO in Neural Cells and Diseases of the Nervous System.

FOXO in Neural Cells and Diseases of the Nervous System. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2018;127:105-118 Authors: Santo EE, Paik J Abstract The evolutionarily conserved FOXO family of transcription factors has emerged as a significant arbiter of neural cell fate and function in mammals. From the neural stem cell (NSC) state through mature neurons under both physiological and pathological conditions, they have been found to modulate neural cell survival, stress responses, lineage commitment, and neuronal signaling. Lineage-specific FOXO knockout mice have provided an invaluable tool for the dissection of FOXO biology in the nervous system. Within the NSC compartments of the brain, FOXOs are required for the maintenance of NSC quiescence and for the clearance of reactive oxygen species. Within mature neurons, FOXO transcriptional activity is essential for the prevention of age-dependent axonal degeneration. Acutely, FOXO3 has been found to cause axonal degeneration upon withdrawal of neurotrophic factors. In more active neural signaling, FOXO6 promotes increased dendritic spine density of hippocampal neurons and is required for the consolidation of memories. In addition to the central nervous system (CNS), FOXOs also influence the functionality of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). FOXO1 knockout within the PNS results in a reduction of sympathetic tone and decreased levels of brain-derived norepinephrine and lower energy expenditure. FOXO3 knockout mice have impair...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): Aishwarya Kakade, Baby Kumari, Pankaj Singh DholaniyaAbstractParkinson's Disease (PD) is described as a progressive neurological disorder caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta. The pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood but it has been linked with complex genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. A substantial number of studies have shown the role of epigenetic modifications in support of the progression of PD. In the present study, we have analyzed the data...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Chemico-Biological InteractionsAuthor(s): Gustavo Roberto Thomé, Vitor Antunes Oliveira, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger, Rogério Aquino Saraiva, Diego Souza, Oscar Endrigo Dorneles Rodrigues, João Batista Teixeira Rocha, Rafael Porto Ineu, Maria Ester PereiraAbstractThe present study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of one selenium-containing AZT derivative compound (S1073) in memory and learning impairment caused by Intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ). ICV-STZ in mice causes impairment of energy metabolism with oxidative damag...
Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
BACKGROUND: We undertook this study to identify patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with no or rare falls who may progress to frequent falling by their next annual follow-up visit. METHODS: We analyzed data in the National Parkinson Foundation Qua...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Elder Adults Source Type: news
Decreased blood flow can affects cognitive function and risk greater likelihood of neurodegenerative diseases. But, walking for 120 seconds every 30 minutes off-sets this.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
The American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) 2013 guidelines for HER2 assessment have increased the number of HER2 equivocal breast carcinomas following in situ hybridization reflex testing, that is, HER2 “double equivocal” (equivocal protein expression and equivocal gene copy number). Forty-five double-equivocal carcinomas were subjected to Prosigna analysis. Twenty-seven cases were investigated for the expression of genes found to be differentially expressed between estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/HER2-positive (N=22) and ER-positive/HER2-negative (N=22) control cases....
Source: The American Journal of Surgical Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Conclusion: Bilateral PSCC occlusion results in a reduction in the vertical VOR of the PSCCs. Over a 6 to 12 month time period improvement in the VOR gain can be demonstrated, most likely due to central compensation. There is clinical correlation with improvement in DVA testing. Bilateral PSCC occlusion is a safe and effective treatment for bilateral BPV proved refractory to particle repositioning manoeuvers.
Source: Otology and Neurotology - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Vestibular Disorders Source Type: research
High-Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), an Endogenous Ligand of Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4, Induces Astroglial Inflammation via NF-ҡβ Pathway. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2018 Aug 14;: Authors: Al-Ofi EA, Al-Ghamdi BS Abstract Neuroinflammation has a definitive role in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. In addition to its pathogenic ligands, toll-like receptors (TLRs) can be activated by damaged endogenous molecules that induce inflammatory signalling pathways such as high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1). Using an ex-vivo rat optic nerve (RON) model, we sought to...
Source: Folia Morphologica - Category: Anatomy Tags: Folia Morphol (Warsz) Source Type: research
[Retracted] Combined treatment with extracorporeal shock‑wave therapy and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation improves bone repair in a rabbit model of bone nonunion. Mol Med Rep. 2018 Aug 09;: Authors: Fan T, Huang G, Wu W, Guo R, Zeng Q Abstract The authors of the above article wish to retract it on account of two reasons: First, the authors have experienced irreconcilable difficulties in deciding upon the suitable order of the authors in the author list. Secondly, due to the authors' negligence, the graph featured in Fig. 1 on p. 1328 does not match with the textual descrip...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
Authors: Zuo Q, Wang J, Chen C, Zhang Y, Feng DX, Zhao R, Chen T Abstract Achaete‑scute homolog 2 (ASCL2), a basic helix‑loop‑helix transcription factor, serves an essential role in the maintenance of adult intestinal stem cells and the growth of gastric cancer (GC). However, the function of ASCL2 in the metastasis of GC is poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ASCL2 expression on gastric tumor metastasis. ASCL2 protein expression was detected in 32 cases of gastric metastasis and its relevant primary tumors using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The data suggeste...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
Metformin reverses stem cell‑like HepG2 sphere formation and resistance to sorafenib by attenuating epithelial‑mesenchymal transformation. Mol Med Rep. 2018 Aug 03;: Authors: Feng Y, Guo X, Huang X, Wu M, Li X, Wu S, Luo X Abstract Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been reported to be associated with the recurrence and drug resistance of liver cancer. In the present study, stem cell‑like HepG2 cell spheres were enriched using stem cell conditioned culture medium. As expected, stem‑like HepG2 cell spheres exhibited increased resistance to sorafenib. Metformin, a common drug used to treat type 2 diab...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
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