Autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder share molecular traits, study finds

Most medical disorders have well-defined physical characteristics seen in tissues, organs and bodily fluids. Psychiatric disorders, in contrast, are not defined by such pathology, but rather by behavior.A UCLA-led study,publishedin Science, has found that autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share some physical characteristics — and important differences — at the molecular level, specifically, patterns of gene expression in the brain. Gene expression is the process by which instructions in DNA are converted into a product, such as a protein.“These findings provide a molecular, pathological signature of these disorders, which is a large step forward,” said senior author Daniel Geschwind, a distinguished professor of neurology, psychiatry and human genetics and director of the UCLA Center for Autism Research and Treatment. “The maj or challenge now is to understand how these changes arose.”Researchers know that certain variations in genetic material put people at risk for psychiatric disorders, but DNA alone doesn ’t tell the whole story. Every cell in the body contains the same DNA; RNA molecules, on the other hand, play a role in gene expression in different parts of the body, by “reading” the instructions contained within DNA.Geschwind and the study ’s lead author, Michael Gandal, reasoned that taking a close look at the RNA in human brain tissue would provide a molecular profile of these psychiatric disorders...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight a key role of the nucleus accumbens in cigarette craving in schizophrenia and suggest that the subjective valuation of cigarette cues is increased in this population. Similar neurofunctional studies on cravings for other psychoactive substances in schizophrenia are warranted. PMID: 30445892 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Dual Diagnosis - Category: Addiction Tags: J Dual Diagn Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Suicide rates are highest in certain occupations, according to a CDC report.
Source: ABC News: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Health Source Type: news
ConclusionsAmong women Veterans Health Administration users, examination of qualitatively distinct patterns of adversity yielded more meaningful results than counting the number of adverse events. Given the high incidence of adverse experiences, Veterans Health Administration is positioned to respond with secondary prevention and a universal trauma precautions approach to all care for women Veterans.
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Suicide rates are highest in certain occupations, according to a CDC report.
Source: ABC News: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Health Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: Given the unique character of each study design, the convergent findings for these eight psychiatric conditions suggest that heritability estimates are robust across different methods. The findings also highlight large differences in genetic and environmental influences between psychiatric disorders, providing future directions for etiological psychiatric research. PMID: 30221610 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research
Depression, alcoholism, and other psychiatricillnesses share disease-related “signatures”involving a disruption in how brain cells communicate with each other.Thestudy, entitled “Shared molecular neuropathology across major psychiatric disorders parallels polygenic overlap,” by Michael J. Gandal et. al., appears inScience,  February 9, 2018.A Washington Postarticle on the study says:“The scientists found similar levels of particular molecules in the brains of people with autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; other commonalities between bipolar and major depression; and oth...
Source: Addiction Inbox - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: blogs
The predisposition to neuropsychiatric disease involves a complex, polygenic, and pleiotropic genetic architecture. However, little is known about how genetic variants impart brain dysfunction or pathology. We used transcriptomic profiling as a quantitative readout of molecular brain-based phenotypes across five major psychiatric disorders—autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and alcoholism—compared with matched controls. We identified patterns of shared and distinct gene-expression perturbations across these conditions. The degree of sharing of transcriptional dysregulation is related to polyge...
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Genetics reports Source Type: news
People have said this to me many times over the years. Here’s another Wheat Belly Basics conversation for newcomers or a refresher for the seasoned Wheat Belly follower. One of the reason that wheat and related grains are such effective causes of weight gain is that they contain a protein, gliadin, that, upon digestion, yields opioid peptides that bind to the opiate receptors of the human brain. These opioid peptides are responsible for generating addictive relationships with food, as well as behavioral and emotional effects. Stop eating grains and an opiate withdrawal syndrome ensues: nausea, headache, fatigue, depr...
Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Wheat Belly Lifestyle addiction appetite stimulant binge eating bulimia Detox eating disorders gluten gluten-free grain-free grains health opiates opioids Weight Loss wellness withdrawal Source Type: blogs
AbstractWe review progress made concerning the participation of candidate genes in the determination of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD) as well as recent evidence on its genetic determination based on molecular methodology. In addition to linkage analyses, we discuss recent results obtained through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We also discuss the genetic comorbidity estimated between ADHD and major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (E), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Furthermore, we examine both the geographical distribu...
Source: Current Genetic Medicine Reports - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
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