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Autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder share molecular traits, study finds

Most medical disorders have well-defined physical characteristics seen in tissues, organs and bodily fluids. Psychiatric disorders, in contrast, are not defined by such pathology, but rather by behavior.A UCLA-led study,publishedin Science, has found that autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share some physical characteristics — and important differences — at the molecular level, specifically, patterns of gene expression in the brain. Gene expression is the process by which instructions in DNA are converted into a product, such as a protein.“These findings provide a molecular, pathological signature of these disorders, which is a large step forward,” said senior author Daniel Geschwind, a distinguished professor of neurology, psychiatry and human genetics and director of the UCLA Center for Autism Research and Treatment. “The maj or challenge now is to understand how these changes arose.”Researchers know that certain variations in genetic material put people at risk for psychiatric disorders, but DNA alone doesn ’t tell the whole story. Every cell in the body contains the same DNA; RNA molecules, on the other hand, play a role in gene expression in different parts of the body, by “reading” the instructions contained within DNA.Geschwind and the study ’s lead author, Michael Gandal, reasoned that taking a close look at the RNA in human brain tissue would provide a molecular profile of these psychiatric disorders...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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A little bit about me: I went to two different 4-year undergraduate schools (transferred out of the first one due to clinical depression). Let's call them college 1 and college 2 (the most recent college I am at). Currently a senior in undergrad, with 3 quarters left of school (hoping I can raise my GPA in that time). I am planning on taking a gap year and in that time working with a local community in a healthcare-related way. Race/ethnicity: Chinese, Mexican, White... Do I have a chance at a top medical school?
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Source Type: forums
CONCLUSION: Adiponectin but not resistin levels were associated with intensity of liver dysfunction and worse prognosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease, suggesting a potential as a prognostic biomarker. PMID: 29469045 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
This study focuses on two outstanding psychiatrists: the Frenchman Valentin Magnan (1835-1916) and the Russian Sergey Korsakov (1854-1900). Their international renown is primarily associated with their investigations into health consequences of alcohol consumption; they were pioneers in this field, and happened to know each other well. The similarities and differences are shown in social and scientific approaches adopted by these two scientists. In his work, Magnan focused mainly on absinthe and epilepsy; he considered alcoholism to be a hereditary mental disorder. Korsakov, after a period of work in Paris under Magna...
Source: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences - Category: Neuroscience Tags: J Hist Neurosci Source Type: research
Privately held IDx is developing an artificial intelligence-based system that could help with the diagnosis diabetic retinopathy – a disease that leads to blindness if undetected. The company met its endpoints in a pivotal trial of the IDx-DR system. The trial involved 900 diabetes patients at 10 sites. The study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the technology in detecting moderate to severe diabetic retinopathy, including macular edema. The results of the pivotal trial met the study hypotheses that were developed in consultation with FDA and demonstrated the IDx-DR system exceeded these performanc...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Digital Health Medical Device Business Source Type: news
The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the association between hospital-level ICU admission practices and clinically important outcomes for patients with isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and mild clinical traumatic brain injury. Design: Multicenter observational cohort. Setting: Trauma centers participating in the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program spanning January 2012 to March 2014. Patients: A total of 14,146 subjects, 16 years old and older, admitted to 215 trauma centers with isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and Glasgow Coma Scale score 13 or greate...
Source: Critical Care Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Neurologic Critical Care Source Type: research
Conclusions: Impaired fibrinolysis, mainly driven by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 increase and thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor activation, is an early manifestation of sepsis and may precede the development of thrombocytopenia. Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor level, in particular, proved to be an independent predictor of mortality, which may improve risk stratification of patients with severe sepsis.
Source: Critical Care Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research
Depression, alcoholism, and other psychiatricillnesses share disease-related “signatures”involving a disruption in how brain cells communicate with each other.Thestudy, entitled “Shared molecular neuropathology across major psychiatric disorders parallels polygenic overlap,” by Michael J. Gandal et. al., appears inScience,  February 9, 2018.A Washington Postarticle on the study says:“The scientists found similar levels of particular molecules in the brains of people with autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; other commonalities between bipolar and major depression; and oth...
Source: Addiction Inbox - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: blogs
The predisposition to neuropsychiatric disease involves a complex, polygenic, and pleiotropic genetic architecture. However, little is known about how genetic variants impart brain dysfunction or pathology. We used transcriptomic profiling as a quantitative readout of molecular brain-based phenotypes across five major psychiatric disorders—autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and alcoholism—compared with matched controls. We identified patterns of shared and distinct gene-expression perturbations across these conditions. The degree of sharing of transcriptional dysregulation is related to polyge...
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Genetics reports Source Type: news
People have said this to me many times over the years. Here’s another Wheat Belly Basics conversation for newcomers or a refresher for the seasoned Wheat Belly follower. One of the reason that wheat and related grains are such effective causes of weight gain is that they contain a protein, gliadin, that, upon digestion, yields opioid peptides that bind to the opiate receptors of the human brain. These opioid peptides are responsible for generating addictive relationships with food, as well as behavioral and emotional effects. Stop eating grains and an opiate withdrawal syndrome ensues: nausea, headache, fatigue, depr...
Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Wheat Belly Lifestyle addiction appetite stimulant binge eating bulimia Detox eating disorders gluten gluten-free grain-free grains health opiates opioids Weight Loss wellness withdrawal Source Type: blogs
AbstractWe review progress made concerning the participation of candidate genes in the determination of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD) as well as recent evidence on its genetic determination based on molecular methodology. In addition to linkage analyses, we discuss recent results obtained through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We also discuss the genetic comorbidity estimated between ADHD and major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (E), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Furthermore, we examine both the geographical distribu...
Source: Current Genetic Medicine Reports - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
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