Autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder share molecular traits, study finds

Most medical disorders have well-defined physical characteristics seen in tissues, organs and bodily fluids. Psychiatric disorders, in contrast, are not defined by such pathology, but rather by behavior.A UCLA-led study,publishedin Science, has found that autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share some physical characteristics — and important differences — at the molecular level, specifically, patterns of gene expression in the brain. Gene expression is the process by which instructions in DNA are converted into a product, such as a protein.“These findings provide a molecular, pathological signature of these disorders, which is a large step forward,” said senior author Daniel Geschwind, a distinguished professor of neurology, psychiatry and human genetics and director of the UCLA Center for Autism Research and Treatment. “The maj or challenge now is to understand how these changes arose.”Researchers know that certain variations in genetic material put people at risk for psychiatric disorders, but DNA alone doesn ’t tell the whole story. Every cell in the body contains the same DNA; RNA molecules, on the other hand, play a role in gene expression in different parts of the body, by “reading” the instructions contained within DNA.Geschwind and the study ’s lead author, Michael Gandal, reasoned that taking a close look at the RNA in human brain tissue would provide a molecular profile of these psychiatric disorders...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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This study investigated whether the LRRK2 G2385R variant was associated with a unique clinical phenotype of PD in the Asian population, using a meta-analysis. The PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, CNKI, and WANFANG databases were searched until September 2017. The strict selection criteria and exclusion criteria were determined, and mean differences (MD) or odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the strength of associations. Statistical analyses and graphics were performed using Review Manager 5.3. Sixteen related case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. The LRRK2 G2385R carri...
Source: Parkinsons Disease - Category: Neurology Tags: Parkinsons Dis Source Type: research
This study included 56 TRD patients [67.8%: women; mean age (SD): 45.5 (10.6) years], who were randomly assigned to one of four groups [A: right prefrontal cTBS; B: left prefrontal iTBS; C: combined right prefrontal cTBS and left prefrontal iTBS; and D: sham-TBS]. We measured standard uptake values (SUV) of cerebral glucose metabolism, at rest, both before and after ten daily treatment sessions.ResultsGroup B and Group C had more responders than Group A and Group D (χ2 = 9.161, p = 0.027). In Group A, the SUV was significantly increased in the ACC and medial PFC (mPFC) after treatment, while the SUV was decreas...
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Authors: Hatano T, Yashiro M, Fujikawa H, Motomura H Abstract The surgical resection of a primary melanoma is sometimes followed by the immediate development of distant metastases, suggesting that the primary melanoma might control the metastatic process. We hypothesized that a paracrine factor(s) from primary melanoma cells might regulate the progression of metastasizing melanoma cells. Here we attempted to identify the factor(s) from primary melanoma cells that regulate the invasion ability of metastatic melanoma cells. We used two mouse melanoma cell lines, B16 and B16/BL6, that latter of which is a subline of B...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Authors: Bhat A, Cerimele JM, Byatt N Abstract Up to 20% of women who screen positive for depression in the perinatal period in primary care and obstetric settings may have bipolar disorder, but little is known about best practices for this population. This column describes clinical programs that support identification and management of depression and bipolar disorder among women in non-mental health settings. The programs use diverse management strategies, including referral to specialty mental health, collaborative care, and consultation and care coordination. Most mental health programs based in primary care and...
Source: Psychiatric Services - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatr Serv Source Type: research
Depression, alcoholism, and other psychiatricillnesses share disease-related “signatures”involving a disruption in how brain cells communicate with each other.Thestudy, entitled “Shared molecular neuropathology across major psychiatric disorders parallels polygenic overlap,” by Michael J. Gandal et. al., appears inScience,  February 9, 2018.A Washington Postarticle on the study says:“The scientists found similar levels of particular molecules in the brains of people with autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; other commonalities between bipolar and major depression; and oth...
Source: Addiction Inbox - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: blogs
The predisposition to neuropsychiatric disease involves a complex, polygenic, and pleiotropic genetic architecture. However, little is known about how genetic variants impart brain dysfunction or pathology. We used transcriptomic profiling as a quantitative readout of molecular brain-based phenotypes across five major psychiatric disorders—autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and alcoholism—compared with matched controls. We identified patterns of shared and distinct gene-expression perturbations across these conditions. The degree of sharing of transcriptional dysregulation is related to polyge...
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Genetics reports Source Type: news
People have said this to me many times over the years. Here’s another Wheat Belly Basics conversation for newcomers or a refresher for the seasoned Wheat Belly follower. One of the reason that wheat and related grains are such effective causes of weight gain is that they contain a protein, gliadin, that, upon digestion, yields opioid peptides that bind to the opiate receptors of the human brain. These opioid peptides are responsible for generating addictive relationships with food, as well as behavioral and emotional effects. Stop eating grains and an opiate withdrawal syndrome ensues: nausea, headache, fatigue, depr...
Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Wheat Belly Lifestyle addiction appetite stimulant binge eating bulimia Detox eating disorders gluten gluten-free grain-free grains health opiates opioids Weight Loss wellness withdrawal Source Type: blogs
AbstractWe review progress made concerning the participation of candidate genes in the determination of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD) as well as recent evidence on its genetic determination based on molecular methodology. In addition to linkage analyses, we discuss recent results obtained through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We also discuss the genetic comorbidity estimated between ADHD and major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (E), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Furthermore, we examine both the geographical distribu...
Source: Current Genetic Medicine Reports - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Recent work using a mouse model has identified the glutamate metabotropic receptor 7 (Grm7) gene as a strong candidate gene for alcohol consumption. Although there has been some work examining the effect of human glutamate metabotropic receptor 7 (GRM7) polymorphisms on human substance use disorders, the majority of the work has focused on other psychiatric disorders such as ADHD, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. The current study aimed to evaluate evidence for association between GRM7 and alcohol behaviors in humans using a single nucleotide polymor...
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