Molecular pathology of lung cancer: current status and perspectives

Purpose of review In this article, we summarize the current knowledge on molecular alterations in lung cancer that are targets for therapy, and provide an outlook on the future development of molecular pathology in precision oncology. Recent findings Lung cancer has become a paradigm for the success of molecular targeted therapies in solid tumors. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are effective treatment options in adenocarcinoma patients with an EGFR, ALK, ROS1 or B-Raf Proto-Oncogene, Serine/Threonine kinase mutation. Additional molecular targets that are addressed in clinical trials include ERBB2, MET, RET, NTRK1 and FGFR. Therapies with antibodies that block the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 and thereby liberate an antitumor immune response have introduced a new era in cancer therapy with impressive therapeutic benefits. The high financial burden, treatment failures and therapeutic side effects of immunotherapies have prompted a search for biomarkers beyond PD-L1 expression, for example, tumor mutation load or immune cell profiling, that might more reliably identify patients that are likely to respond. Summary The discoveries of cancer research have been translated into the clinical management of lung cancer patients. So far, the approach of targeted therapy that is directed towards certain molecular alterations in a given tumor has been successful for adenocarcinomas, but not yet for squamous or small cell carcinomas. Further clinical progress will require a better und...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Related Links:

Abstract Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate of all malignant tumours. The current effects of cancer treatment, as well as its diagnostics, are unsatisfactory. Therefore it is very important to introduce modern diagnostic tools, which will allow for rapid classification of lung cancers and their degree of malignancy. For this purpose, the authors propose the use of Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with Principal Component Analysis-Linear Discriminant Analysis (PCA-LDA) and a physics-based computational model. The results obtained for lung cancer tissues, adenocarcinoma and squamous ce...
Source: Talanta - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Talanta Source Type: research
Conclusions In lung cancer cells, the parameters of spectral CT imaging, including NIC and K values, reflect the microvessel density and blood supply. Calcium content is an indicator of the growth status of lung SC.
Source: Academic Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Conclusions Among patients with a history of lung cancer, prior adenocarcinoma emerged as a predictor of GGO progression, whereas a history of squamous cell carcinoma or small cell carcinoma and white race were identified as predictors of GGO resolution.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Authors: Engelberg S, Modrejewski J, Walter JG, Livney YD, Assaraf YG Abstract Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, resulting in 88% deaths of all diagnosed patients. Hence, novel therapeutic modalities are urgently needed. Single-stranded oligonucleotide-based aptamers (APTs) are excellent ligands for tumor cell targeting. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their internalization into living cells have been poorly studied. Towards the application of APTs for active drug targeting to cancer cells, we herein studied the mechanism underlying S15-APT internalization into human non-s...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Abstract Cell-free microRNAs in plasma provide circulating biomarkers for lung cancer. Most techniques for analysis of miRNAs require a large plasma volume to purify a sufficient RNA yield followed by complicated downstream processing. Small differences in the multiple procedures often cause large analytical variations and poor diagnostic values of the plasma biomarkers. Here we investigate whether directly quantifying plasma miRNAs without RNA purification could diagnose lung cancer. FirePlex assay was directly applied to 20 μl plasma of 56 lung cancer patients and 28 cancer free controls for quantifying 11 lu...
Source: Translational Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These user-friendly nomograms can precisely predict site-specific recurrence in completely resected NSCLC patients based upon clinicopathologic features. They may help clinicians to make individual postoperative follow-up plans. PMID: 29758181 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Chest - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Chest Source Type: research
This study implied that E2F3/6/7 are potential targets of precision therapy for patients with LC and that E2F1/2/4/5/8 are new biomarkers for the prognosis of LC. PMID: 29754146 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Aging - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research
In this study, aiming at the discovery of predictive markers for tumor invasion, we performed protein profiling between LCN1-sus and LCN1-co cells using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Twenty-six protein spots with >1.2-fold quantitative differences between LCN1-sus and LCN1-co cells were detected. Among the identified proteins, we focused on and immunohistochemically investigated G6PD in lung cancer. G6PD expression was significantly associated with a higher pathological TNM stage (p = 0.0024), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0187), poorer differentiation (p = 0.0046), pleural invasion (p = 0.0197), v...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Proteins and Proteomics - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Authors: Quintanal-Villalonga Á, Mediano M, Ferrer I, Meléndez R, Carranza-Carranza A, Suárez R, Carnero A, Molina-Pinelo S, Paz-Ares L Abstract Lung tumors represent a major health problem. In early stage NSCLC tumors, surgical resection is the preferred treatment, but 30-55% of patients will relapse within 5 years after surgery. Thus, the identification of prognostic biomarkers in early stage NSCLC patients, especially those which are therapeutically addressable, is crucial to enhance survival of these patients. We determined the immunohistochemistry expression of key proteins involved in tum...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
In this study, aiming at the discovery of predictive markers for tumor invasion, we performed protein profiling between LCN1-sus and LCN1-co cells using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Twenty-six protein spots with>1.2-fold quantitative differences between LCN1-sus and LCN1-co cells were detected. Among the identified proteins, we focused on and immunohistochemically investigated G6PD in lung cancer. G6PD expression was significantly associated with a higher pathological TNM stage (p = 0.0024), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0187), poorer differentiation (p = 0.0046), pleural invasion (p = 0.0197), va...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochim Biophys Acta Source Type: research
More News: Adenocarcinoma | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Cancer Therapy | Carcinoma | Clinical Trials | Immunotherapy | Lung Cancer | Pathology