Molecular pathology of lung cancer: current status and perspectives

Purpose of review In this article, we summarize the current knowledge on molecular alterations in lung cancer that are targets for therapy, and provide an outlook on the future development of molecular pathology in precision oncology. Recent findings Lung cancer has become a paradigm for the success of molecular targeted therapies in solid tumors. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are effective treatment options in adenocarcinoma patients with an EGFR, ALK, ROS1 or B-Raf Proto-Oncogene, Serine/Threonine kinase mutation. Additional molecular targets that are addressed in clinical trials include ERBB2, MET, RET, NTRK1 and FGFR. Therapies with antibodies that block the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 and thereby liberate an antitumor immune response have introduced a new era in cancer therapy with impressive therapeutic benefits. The high financial burden, treatment failures and therapeutic side effects of immunotherapies have prompted a search for biomarkers beyond PD-L1 expression, for example, tumor mutation load or immune cell profiling, that might more reliably identify patients that are likely to respond. Summary The discoveries of cancer research have been translated into the clinical management of lung cancer patients. So far, the approach of targeted therapy that is directed towards certain molecular alterations in a given tumor has been successful for adenocarcinomas, but not yet for squamous or small cell carcinomas. Further clinical progress will require a better und...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: This case represents a previously undocumented confluence of cranial AVM that initially masked a non-small cell lung cancer brain metastasis. PMID: 30638546 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neurochirurgie - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Neurochirurgie Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeWe aimed to analyze the expression of ZWINT, NUSAP1, DLGAP5, and PRC1 in tumor tissues and adjacent tissues with public data.MethodsThe expression patterns of four genes were detected in cancer tissues and adjacent tissues by qRT-PCR. The overall survival analysis was used to explore these genes in lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma patients. Knockdown assays were used to select the most suitable gene among these four genes. Cell function assays with the knockdown gene were conducted in A549 and NCL H226 cells. The role of the knockdown gene in lung cancer was dissected in a mice tumor model. Tr...
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study aimed to know characteristics and survival of female patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) in Dharmais National Cancer Centre Hospital. METHODS: a retrospective cohort study was performed among NSCLC female patients in Dharmais Cancer Hospital (DCH) between January 2005 and December 2015. Survival analysis was done using the Kaplan-Meir estimation curve with proportional assumption test. Independent prognostic factors were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model with a hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: a total of 956 NSCLC cases were retrieved during ...
Source: Acta medica Indonesiana - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Acta Med Indones Source Type: research
This study evaluated spatial-temporal recurrence patterns after curative resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to clarify and recommend appropriate post-operative surveillance. Methods: A total of 2,486 consecutive patients between January 2005 and December 2012 with NSCLC (stage I-IIIA) who underwent definitive surgical resection were retrospectively analyzed. We used a hazard rate curve to evaluate event dynamics. Disease-free survival (DFS) was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses with Cox proportional hazards regression identified risk factors that predicted DFS. ...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research
In this study, lung cancer cells, subcutaneous xenografts of lung cancer in nude mice, and Lox-Stop-lox K-ras G12D transgenic mice were used as models. The transgenic mice displayed the dynamic processes from normal lung tissue to atypical hyperplasia, adenomas, carcinoma in situ and lung adenocarcinoma. It was found that miR-155 and somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) were expressed in all the disease stages of transgenic mice. Through molecular beacon (MB) technology and nanotechnology, chitosan-molecular beacon (CS-MB) nanoparticles and targeted octreotide (OCT) were conjugated and synthesized. The octreotide-conjugated chi...
Source: Drug Delivery - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Deliv Source Type: research
hang Pinpin Lin Meta-analysis revealed that Leucine Zipper Down-Regulated In Cancer 1 (LDOC1) increased methylation more in people with lung tumors than in those who were healthy and never smoked. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR revealed that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) exposure drives LDOC1 promoter hypermethylation and silence in human bronchial cells. Immunohistochemistry studies showed that LDOC1 downregulation is associated with poor survival of patients with lung cancer. Loss and gain of LDOC1 functions enhanced and attenuated aggressive phenotypes in lung adenocarcinoma A549 and non–small ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide and has a poor prognosis with a five-year survival of only 16.8%. [1,2] Based on histology, lung cancer is separated into two main subsets, small cell carcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [3]. The two main histological NSCLC subsets, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma belong to the top three cancer types with regard to the prevalence of somatic mutations [4]. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has conducted comprehensive genome studies of NSCLC, displaying a great diversity of molecular variations [5,6].
Source: Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
We report our findings on 11 advanced lung cancer patients with MPE. We found that manufacturing and infusing ATMPs-MTX were feasible and safe, without evidence of toxic effects of grade 3 or higher. Evaluation of the tumor microenvironment in MPE demonstrated notable reductions in tumor cells and CD163+ macrophages in MPE after ATMP-MTX infusion, which then translated into objective clinical responses. Moreover, ATMP-MTX treatment stimulated CD4+ T cells to release IL-2 and CD8+ cells to release IFN-. Our initial experience with ATMPs-MTX in advanced lung cancer with MPE suggests that ATMPs targeting malignant cells and t...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Abstract Rapid advance in oncology leads to increasing survival of oncologic patients. More and more of them live long enough to reach either the natural age of menopause or, as a side effect of their oncotherapy, experience the cessation of gonadal function, leading to premature ovarian insufficiency, with disturbing vasomotor symtoms and long-term negative cardiovascular and skeletal effects. Thus, an ever increasing number of cancer survivors search endocrinologic help in the form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The misinterpretation of the WHI (Women's Health Initiative) Study has lead to an irrational f...
Source: Pathology Oncology Research - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Pathol Oncol Res Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe identified the clinical characteristics of eight MAC-LD patients who developed lung cancer. NTM-LD may be a risk factor for lung cancer development. Periodic follow-up with chest CT might contribute to early diagnosis and curative therapy for lung cancer.
Source: Respiratory Investigation - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
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