What is "right to try," and would it help patients?

President Trump is promoting "right to try" legislation. Will it give patients the help they need or only bring false hope?
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Related Links:

Abstract Plants present a variety of defensive strategies against herbivores, broadly classified into tolerance and resistance. Since resource availability can also limit plant growth, we expect plant allocation to resource acquisition and defense to vary along resource gradients. Yet, the conditions under which one defensive strategy is favored over the other are unclear. Here, we use an eco-evolutionary model to investigate plant adaptive allocation to resource acquisition, tolerance, and resistance along a resource gradient in a simple food web module inspired by plankton communities where plants compete for a ...
Source: The American Naturalist - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research
In this study, we examine feeding preference through repeated laboratory choice feeding assays of 444 wild-caught individuals of eight invertebrate grazer species on rocky reefs in northern California. Between-species variation accounted for 25%-33% of the total variation in preference for the preferred resource, while between-individual variation accounted for 4%-5% of total variation. For two of the eight species, between-individual variation was significantly different from zero and on average contributed 14% and 17% of the total diet variation, even after accounting for differences due to size and sex. Therefore, even ...
Source: The American Naturalist - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research
Abstract The climatic variability hypothesis (CVH) is a cornerstone of thermal ecology, predicting the evolution of wider organismal thermal tolerance ranges in more thermally variable environments. Thermal tolerance ranges depend on both upper and lower tolerance limits (critical thermal maxima [[Formula: see text]] and critical thermal minima [[Formula: see text]]), which may show different responses to environmental gradients. To delineate the relative effects of mean and extreme temperatures on thermal tolerances, we conducted a within-latitude comparative test of CVH predictions for army ants (Dorylinae) at m...
Source: The American Naturalist - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research
Abstract The timing and synchrony of mating activity in a population may vary both within and among years. With the exception of masting species, in which reproductive activity fluctuates dramatically among years, mating synchrony is typically studied within years. However, opportunities to mate also vary among years in nonmasting iteroparous species. We demonstrate that studying only within-year flowering synchrony fails to accurately quantify variation in mating opportunity in an experimental population ([Formula: see text]) of a nonmasting species, Echinacea angustifolia. We quantified individuals' synchrony of...
Source: The American Naturalist - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research
Abstract Parasitism is a common symbiotic interaction across diverse natural systems. Using a comparative evolutionary approach, we investigated the contributions of both host phylogeny and abiotic factors toward diversification of phylogenetically independent endoparasites that inhabit essentially the same physical space. We tested for host-parasite and parasite-parasite phylogenetic concordance in western North American chipmunks (Rodentia: Sciuridae) and two distantly related species of pinworms (Nematoda: Oxyurida). Deep structure in molecular phylogenies revealed signals of host-associated divergence in both ...
Source: The American Naturalist - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research
;ay E Abstract Many physical and behavioral traits in animals, including humans, are inherited both genetically and culturally. The presence of different inheritance systems affecting the same trait can result in complex evolutionary dynamics. Here, we present a general model that elucidates the distinct roles of cultural and genetic inheritance systems and their interaction in driving the evolution of complex phenotypes. In particular, we derive a Price equation that incorporates both cultural and genetic inheritance of a phenotype where the effects of genes and culture are additive. We then use this equation to ...
Source: The American Naturalist - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research
Abstract From the male peacock's tail plumage to the floral displays of flowering plants, traits related to sexual reproduction are often complex and exaggerated. Why has sexual reproduction become so complicated? Why have such exaggerated sexual traits evolved? Early work posited a connection between multicellularity and sexual traits such as anisogamy (i.e., the evolution of small sperm and large eggs). Anisogamy then drives the evolution of other forms of sexual dimorphism. Yet the relationship between multicellularity and the evolution of sexual traits has not been empirically tested. Given their extensive var...
Source: The American Naturalist - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research
Abstract Interspecific aggregations of prey may provide benefits by mitigating predation risk, but they can also create costs if they increase competition for resources or are more easily detectable by predators. Variation in predation risk and resource availability may influence the occurrence and fitness effects of aggregating in nature. Yet tests of such possibilities are lacking. Cavity-nesting birds provide an interesting test case. They compete aggressively for resources and experience low nest predation rates, which might predict dispersion, but across 19 years of study we found that they commonly aggregate...
Source: The American Naturalist - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research
Abstract There is growing evidence that speciation can occur between populations that are not geographically isolated. The emergence of assortative mating is believed to be critical to this process, but how assortative mating arises in diverging populations is poorly understood. The wolf spider genus Schizocosa has become a model system for studying mechanisms of assortative mating. We conducted a series of experiments to identify the factors that control mate pair formation in a Schizocosa population that includes both ornamented and nonornamented males. We show that the population also includes two previously un...
Source: The American Naturalist - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research
Abstract Biological systems provide examples of differential success among taxa, from ecosystems with a few dominant species (ecological success) to clades that possess far more species than sister clades (macroevolutionary success). Macroecological success, the occupation by a species or clade of an unusually high number of areas, has received less attention. If macroecological success reflects heritable traits, then successful species should be related. Genera composed of species possessing those traits should occupy more areas than genera with comparable species richness that lack such traits. Alternatively, if...
Source: The American Naturalist - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research
More News: American Health | Health | Trump | USA Health