Biogen stops testing Tysabri to treat stroke after study fails

(Reuters) - Biogen Inc said on Wednesday it would stop developing its multiple sclerosis drug Tysabri to treat patients with acute ischemic stroke after it failed a mid-stage study.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Panagiotis Zis, Dimos-Dimitrios MitsikostasAbstractPlacebo is an intervention with no therapeutic effect that is used as a control in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Placebo effects and responses can produce a beneficial effect that cannot be attributed to the properties of the intervention itself, since it is usually inactive, and should, therefore, be due to the patient's expectations about treatment (placebo effects), or confounding factors such as natural history, co-interventions, biases, among other co-factors ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
ConclusionFor ASPECTS assessment, the examined software may provide valid data in case of normal brain. It may enhance the work of neuroradiologists in clinical decision making. A final human check for plausibility is needed, particularly in patient groups with pre-existing cerebral changes.
Source: Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Abstract During these last years, the CB2 cannabinoid receptor has emerged as a potential anti-inflammatory target in diseases such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, ischemic stroke, autoimmune diseases, osteoporosis, and cancer. However, the development of clinically useful CB2 agonists reveals to be very challenging. Allosterism and biased-signaling mechanisms at CB2 receptor may offer new avenues for the development of improved CB2 receptor-targeted therapies. Although there has been some exploration of CB1 receptor activation by new CB1 allosteric or biased-signaling l...
Source: Biochemical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research
Roberto Patern ò, Jean-Marc Chillon
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Endothelial cells of the central nervous system over-express surface proteins during neurological disorders, either as a cause, or a consequence, of the disease. Since the cerebral vasculature is easily accessible by large contrast-carrying particles, it constitutes a target of choice for molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this review, we highlight the most recent advances in molecular MRI of brain endothelial activation and focus on the development of micro-sized particles of iron oxide (MPIO) targeting adhesion molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (...
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare and heterogeneous inflammatory disease of the CNS vasculature with poorly understood pathophysiology. Comprehensive immune-cell phenotyping revealed increased frequencies of leucocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PACNS patients compared to patients with multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke, and somatoform disorders (n  = 18 per group). Changes in the intrathecal immune-cell profile were heterogeneous in PACNS. While proportions of T-cell subsets remained unaltered, some PACNS patients showed a shift toward NK- or B cells.
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion. Modafinil is a central nervous system stimulant with well-established effectiveness in the treatment of narcolepsy and shift-work sleep disorder. There is conflicting evidence about the benefits of modafinil in the treatment of fatigue and EDS secondary to TBI. One randomized, controlled study states that modafinil does not significantly improve patient wakefulness, while another concludes that modafinil corrects EDS but not fatigue. An observational study provides evidence that modafinil increases alertness in fatigued patients with past medical history of brainstem diencephalic stroke or multiple scleros...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Current Issue Review excessive daytime sleep fatigue head injury modafinil stroke TBI traumatic brain injury Source Type: research
In conclusion, senescence of vascular cells promotes the development of age-related disorders, including heart failure, diabetes, and atherosclerotic diseases, while suppression of vascular cell senescence ameliorates phenotypic features of aging in various models. Recent findings have indicated that specific depletion of senescent cells reverses age-related changes. Although the biological networks contributing to maintenance of homeostasis are extremely complex, it seems reasonable to explore senolytic agents that can act on specific cellular components or tissues. Several clinical trials of senolytic agents are currentl...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Authors: Tae WS, Ham BJ, Pyun SB, Kang SH, Kim BJ Abstract Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive medical imaging tool used to investigate the structure of white matter. The signal contrast in DTI is generated by differences in the Brownian motion of the water molecules in brain tissue. Postprocessed DTI scalars can be used to evaluate changes in the brain tissue caused by disease, disease progression, and treatment responses, which has led to an enormous amount of interest in DTI in clinical research. This review article provides insights into DTI scalars and the biological background of DTI as a relative...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
Abstract The cerebellum characteristically has the capacity to compensate for and restore lost functions. These compensatory/restorative properties are explained by an abundant synaptic plasticity and the convergence of multimodal central and peripheral signals. In addition, extra-cerebellar structures contribute also to the recovery after a cerebellar injury. Clinically, some patients show remarkable improvement of severe ataxic symptoms associated with trauma, stroke, metabolism, or immune-mediated cerebellar ataxia (IMCA, e.g., multiple sclerosis, paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, gluten ataxia, anti-GAD6...
Source: Cerebellum - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cerebellum Source Type: research
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