What is the Difference Between an Association and a Syndrome?
Discussion VATER association was first described in the 1970s with additional congenital malformations being added to the association so it is most often called VACTERL association. It is a highly heterogeneous, overlapping condition estimated to occur in ~1/10,000-40,000 births. The cause is unknown. In animal models, some signaling pathway gene mutations have phenotypes of VACTERL association. Experts suggest that patients having at least 2 components should be further evaluated (at least 3 for diagnosis) for VACTERL and other diseases in its differential diagnosis. There are more than 30 syndromes, mutations and diseases that have components of the malformations in VACTERL association. Alagille syndrome , CHARGE Syndrome, Blackfan-Diamond anemia, Holt-Oram syndrome, and Caudal regression syndrome are just a few examples. All signs and symptoms can be obvious or extremely subtle. Some symptoms may not occur until years later or be surreptitious. Most patients do not have all of the components. Facial and brain malformations are not common with VACTERL association. Treatment depends on the specific malformations and their extensiveness. Surgical treatment is often necessary to manage one or more problems. Components of the VACTERL association include: Vertebral malformation Occurs in 60-90% of patients Usually segmentation defects, can occur in any vertebrae Can also have rib anomalies and/or spinal curvature Can also have tethered cord and/or similar neurological anomal...
Authors: Mehta HH, Morris M, Fischman DL, Finley JJ, Ruggiero N, Walinsky P, McCarey M, Savage MP Abstract OBJECTIVE: An under-recognized cause of chest pain, the coronary slow-flow (CSF) phenomenon is characterized by delayed coronary opacification during diagnostic angiography in the absence of epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD). Given its angiographic resemblance to no-reflow during percutaneous coronary intervention, a condition associated with microvascular spasm responsive to calcium-channel blockers, we hypothesized that spontaneous CSF may similarly be reversed by intracoronary (IC) nicardipine. M...
STOMACH bloating could be caused by eating certain foods in your diet, or by eating too much in one go. Other than avoiding certain foods at dinner time, you could also prevent trapped wind pain and tummy aches with this easy eating trick.
HIGH blood pressure symptoms can be difficult to spot, but may include chest pain, severe headaches and nosebleeds. You could also be at risk of hypertension signs if you hear this noise in your ear.
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Conclusions Experts agreed with 11 biomechanical orthotic correction topics. Some answers for seven topics, on which participants failed to reach an agreement, were found through the literature review. The area that had the most disagreement occurred on questions regarding treatment of the sagittal plane. The question regarding the placement of a thoracic pad for a single thoracic curve was not yet clear. More quantitative investigations are still needed to understand biomechanical correction concepts while treating AIS with an orthosis.
Conclusions Trends toward reduction in mean AGT distance suggest Lycra arm sleeves may be beneficial in glenohumeral subluxation (GHS) management. Further research is required to establish their effectiveness in acute and chronic settings using a well-designed fully powered randomized controlled trial.
Conclusion. For lumbar disc herniations patients with annular defects ≥6 mm, the ACD was, at 2 years, a highly cost-effective surgical modality compared to conventional lumbar discectomy. Level of Evidence: 1
Conclusion. Children who survive tCCD may regain function after stabilization. Rigid internal rod and screw fixation in infants and young children safely provided long-term stability. We advocate using C2 translaminar screws to exploit the favorable anatomy of pediatric lamina to minimize the risks of occipitocervical (OC) instrumentation. Level of Evidence: 4
Conclusion. Progression of cervical spondylolisthesis is not related to the presence of spondylolisthesis at baseline. Level of Evidence: 4
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