Study of social contact patterns in Hong Kong will give insight into spread of epidemic

(Lancaster University) The first ever long-term study of patterns of social contact in Hong Kong will improve our knowledge of the growth of epidemics.Hong Kong was where SARS emerged in 2002-2003. The study looked at the number and type of social encounters made by 1,450 residents. This is affected by age but 'supermixers' are not necessarily more likely to contract or spread disease.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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This article aims at reviewing the various aspects of the global epidemiology of bat coronaviruses (CoVs). Before the SARS epidemic, bats were not known to be hosts for CoVs. In the last 15 years, bats have been found to be hosts of >30 CoVs with complete genomes sequenced, and many more if those without genome sequences are included. Among the four CoV genera, only alphaCoVs and betaCoVs have been found in bats. As a whole, both alphaCoVs and betaCoVs have been detected from bats in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America and Australasia; but alphaCoVs seem to be more widespread than betaCoVs, and their detec...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
The introduction of blood donor screening by virus nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) in the mid to late 1990s was driven by the so-called AIDS and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic, with thousands of recipients of infected blood products and components. Plasma fractionators were the first to introduce NAT testing besides pathogen reduction procedures, to reduce the virus transmission risk through their products. To achieve a similar safety standard, NAT was then also introduced for labile blood components. German transfusion centres were the first to start in-house NAT testing of their donations in pools of up to ...
Source: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
Purpose: Epidemics rank among the most costly and destructive of natural hazards. In the past few years outbreaks such as Ebola, Zika, MERS and SARS demonstrated the limited preparedness to respond swiftly and appropriate. This highlight the need to develop more proactive instead of reactive policies Existing frameworks for epidemic response are either disease specific, category specific or nonspecific national models, but so far no model exist that combine all elements. The aim of this study is to create a holistic framework for early warning system for disease outbreaks by identifying the risk factors of epidemics at an early stage.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: 17.010 Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 26 January 2019Source: Computational and Structural Biotechnology JournalAuthor(s): Kin On Kwok, Arthur Tang, Vivian W.I. Wei, Woo Hyun Park, Eng Kiong Yeoh, Steven RileyAbstractThe emergence and reemergence of coronavirus epidemics sparked renewed concerns from global epidemiology researchers and public health administrators. Mathematical models that represented how contact tracing and follow-up may control Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) transmissions were developed for evaluating different infection control interventions, estimating ...
Source: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
(CNN) — From climate change to superbugs, the World Health Organization has laid out 10 big threats to our global health in 2019. And unless these threats get addressed, millions of lives will be in jeopardy. Here’s a snapshot of 10 urgent health issues, according to the United Nations’ public health agency: Not vaccinating when you can One of the most controversial recent health topics in the US is now an international concern. “Vaccine hesitancy — the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines — threatens to reverse progress made in tackling vaccine-prevent...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Local TV Source Type: news
n Mossman Bats are speculated to be reservoirs of several emerging viruses including coronaviruses (CoVs) that cause serious disease in humans and agricultural animals. These include CoVs that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) and severe acute diarrhea syndrome (SADS). Bats that are naturally infected or experimentally infected do not demonstrate clinical signs of disease. These observations have allowed researchers to speculate that bats are the likely reservoirs or ancestral hosts for several CoVs. In this review, we follow the CoV...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract Coronaviruses (CoVs) produce a wide spectrum of disease syndromes in different mammalian and avian host species. These viruses are well-recognized for their ability to change tissue tropism, to hurdle the interspecies barriers and to adapt ecological variations. It is predicted that the inherent genetic diversity of CoVs caused by accumulation of point mutations and high frequency of homologous recombination is the principal determinant of these competences. Several CoVs (e.g. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV) have been recorded to cross the interspecies barrier,...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research
The global travel and tourism industry has been rapidly expanding in the past decades. The traditional focus on border screening, and by airline and cruise industries may be inadequate due to the incubation pe...
Source: Globalization and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Authors: Mandil A, Bresee J, Tageldin MA, Azad TM, Khan W Abstract Infectious diseases continue to represent a significant threat to global health security, particularly in the context of increasing globalization, interconnectedness and interdependence. Chief among such threats are influenza viruses and other respiratory pathogens, such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), because of their risk of high transmissibility and acuity of illness. Annual epidemics of seasonal influenza cause an estimated 3-5 million cases of severe illness and more than 500 000 deaths, with the prospect of pandemic...
Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: East Mediterr Health J Source Type: research
Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe respiratory disease with high fatality rates in humans. The 2002-2003 SARS-CoV epidemic resulted in 8098 cases and 744 deaths, and MERS-CoV, which emerged in 2012, has resulted in 2144 cases and over 750 deaths as of March 2018. Currently, there are no effective prophylactic or therapeutic measures, and because other CoVs are poised to emerge as new human pathogens, there is a need to define a general CoV vaccine solution. Past efforts to develop CoV vaccines have used whole-inactivated virus, live-attenuated virus, recombinant protein subunit, or genetic approaches.CoV spike (S) prote...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
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