Arizona State to grow human neurons, test treatments for neurodegenerative diseases

(Arizona State University) Lab-grown human neurons will be used to develop and test treatments for devastating neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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Abstract The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents neurotoxic plasma components, blood cells, and pathogens from entering the brain. At the same time, the BBB regulates transport of molecules into and out of the central nervous system (CNS), which maintains tightly controlled chemical composition of the neuronal milieu that is required for proper neuronal functioning. In this review, we first examine molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the establishment of the BBB. Then, we focus on BBB transport physiology, endothelial and pericyte transporters, and perivascular and paravascular transport. Next, we discuss ...
Source: Physiological Reviews - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Physiol Rev Source Type: research
Abstract Perturbations in iron homeostasis and iron accumulation feature in several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Proteins such as α-synuclein, tau and amyloid precursor protein that are pathologically associated with neurodegeneration are involved in molecular crosstalk with iron homeostatic proteins. Quantitative susceptibility mapping, an MRI based non-invasive technique, offers proximal evaluations of iron load in regions of the brain and powerfully predicts cognitive decline. Further, small molecules that...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research
In this study, we found that TXNIP deficiency induces accelerated senescent phenotypes of mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells under high glucose condition and that the induction of cellular ROS or AKT activation is critical for cellular senescence. Our results also revealed that TXNIP inhibits AKT activity by a direct interaction, which is upregulated by high glucose and H2O2 treatment. In addition, TXNIP knockout mice exhibited an increase in glucose uptake and aging-associated phenotypes including a decrease in energy metabolism and induction of cellular senescence and aging-associated gene expression. We propose that...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusion: The network of exosomes and miRNAs that regulates CNS homeostasis is a promising biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID: 30203797 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
Abstract Spices are not only just herbs used in culinary for improving the taste of dishes. They are also sources of a numerous bioactive compounds significantly beneficial for health. They have been used since ancient times because of their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and carminative properties. Several scientific studies have suggested their protective role against chronic diseases. In fact, their active compounds may help in arthritis, neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer's, Parkinson, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, etc.), diabetes, sore muscles, gastrointestinal problems and many m...
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research
This study provides some evidence of the role DNA methylation may play in the known relationship between PON1 and neurobehavior in children, however it appears to be only suggestive and warrants additional research. PMID: 30172926 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Environment International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Redox BiologyAuthor(s): Isabel Formella, Adam J. Svahn, Rowan Radford, Emily K. Don, Nicholas J. Cole, Alison Hogan, Albert Lee, Roger Chung, Marco MorschAbstractGeneration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been shown to be important for many physiological processes, ranging from cell differentiation to apoptosis. With the development of the genetically encoded photosensitiser KillerRed (KR) it is now possible to efficiently produce ROS dose-dependently in a specific cell type upon green light illumination. Zebrafish are the ideal vertebrate animal model for these...
Source: Redox Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
uiz J Abstract The endocannabinoid system (ECS) exerts a modulatory effect of important functions such as neurotransmission, glial activation, oxidative stress, or protein homeostasis. Dysregulation of these cellular processes is a common neuropathological hallmark in aging and in neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). The broad spectrum of actions of cannabinoids allows targeting different aspects of these multifactorial diseases. In this review, we examine the therapeutic potential of the ECS for the treatment of chronic neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS focusing on Alzheimer's disea...
Source: Biochemical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Lindsay Joy Spielman, Deanna Lynn Gibson, Andis KlegerisAbstractThe number of bacterial cells living within the human body is approximately equal to, or greater than, the total number of human cells. This dynamic population of microorganisms, termed the human microbiota, resides mainly within the gastrointestinal tract. It is widely accepted that highly diverse and stable microbiota promote overall human health. Colonization of the gut with maladaptive and pathogenic microbiota, a state also known as dysbiosis, is associated wit...
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Organophosphorus (OP) compounds have been known as the most widely used pesticides during the past half century and there have been a huge body of literature regarding their association with human chronic diseases. Neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders including Alzheimer, Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism are among the afflicting neurological diseases which overshadow human life and their higher risk in relation to OP exposures have been uncovered by epidemiological studies. In addition, experimental studies exploring ...
Source: Toxicology - Category: Toxicology Authors: Tags: Toxicology Source Type: research
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