Is the impact of starvation on the gut microbiota specific or unspecific to anorexia nervosa? A narrative review based on a systematic literature search.

Is the impact of starvation on the gut microbiota specific or unspecific to anorexia nervosa? A narrative review based on a systematic literature search. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2018 Jan 17;: Authors: Mack I, Penders J, Cook J, Dugmore J, Mazurak N, Enck P Abstract BACKGROUND: The role of the gut microbiota in Anorexia nervosa (AN) has long been neglected by researchers, although the former is known to play an important role in health, disease and weight regulation. Overweight and underweight due to natural states of starvation and refeeding are normal in many vertebrates in their ecological niches. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to compare the similarities and differences between the gut microbiota in eating disorders with conditions of fasting and refeeding in other vertebrates. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted in Pubmed and Web of Science to find all relevant studies examining the gut microbiota in eating disorders and different states of fasting in vertebrates for this narrative review. PMID: 29345582 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 8 August 2018Source: Joint Bone SpineAuthor(s): Anne Tournadre, Gaelle Vial, Frédéric Capel, Martin Soubrier, Yves BoirieABSTRACTSarcopenia is defined as a combination of low muscle mass with low muscle function. The term was first used to designate the loss of muscle mass and performance associated with aging. Now, recognized causes of sarcopenia also include chronic disease, a physically inactive lifestyle, loss of mobility, and malnutrition. Sarcopenia should be differentiated from cachexia, which is characterized not only by low muscle mass but also by weight loss and an...
Source: Joint Bone Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Sustainable weight loss. Protection from diabetes, heart disease and cancer. Improved brain health. Enhanced physical fitness and strength. It seems like every week, researchers turn up some new and profound benefit associated with intermittent fasting: eating schedules that incorporate regular periods of low or no food consumption. By eating normally for several days a week and eating much less on the others, a person may be able to shift her body’s cellular and metabolic processes in ways that promote optimal health. And experts who study intermittent fasting say that while many blanks still need to be filled in, s...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Diet/Nutrition healthytime Source Type: news
Abstract The mechanisms of appetite disorders, such as refractory obesity and anorexia nervosa, have been vigorously studied over the last century, and these studies have shown that the central nervous system has significant involvement with, and responsibility for, the pathology associated with these diseases. Because deep brain stimulation has been shown to be a safe, efficacious, and adjustable treatment modality for a variety of other neurological disorders, it has also been studied as a possible treatment for appetite disorders. In studies of refractory obesity in animal models, the ventromedial hypothalamus,...
Source: Neurosurgical Focus - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: Neurosurg Focus Source Type: research
Abstract Alcohol intake is facilitated by its relationship with eating behavior and both processes are highly influenced by situations of stress and anxiety. The dysregulation of these processes can reach pathological situations such as anorexia, bulimia or obesity. The neurobiological elements which underlie this control are not completely clarified. The nucleus incertus (NI) in the pontine tegmentum is a common element in the food intake and alcoholism. NI is characterized by using the neuropeptide relaxin-3 (RLN3) as transmitter and its receptor RXFP3. In the present review, we will analyze the participation of...
Source: Revista de Neurologia - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Rev Neurol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained from this study support previous research devoted to the study of eating disorders and obesity. This situation favors the valid and relevant nature of the study of personality traits as factors that contribute to explaining behavior disorders associated with eating pathologies. This is a preliminary and necessary step for future research to examine the risky combination of personality traits and anorexia, bulimia, and obesity in the local context using a larger and more generalized sample. PMID: 30043159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Eating and weight disorders : EWD - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Eat Weight Disord Source Type: research
Dolores Prieto Carlos Diéguez Cristina Contreras Miguel López Recent data have demonstrated that the hypothalamic GRP78/BiP (glucose regulated protein 78 kDa/binding immunoglobulin protein) modulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis by acting downstream on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Herein, we aimed to investigate whether genetic over-expression of GRP78 in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH: a key site regulating thermogenesis) could ameliorate very high fat diet (vHFD)-induced obesity. Our data showed that stereotaxic treatment with adenoviruses harboring GRP78 in ...
Source: Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 010 Peer Reviewer: Dr Jennifer Ho, ID physician QLD, Australia You are an ED doc working in Perth over schoolies week. An 18 yo man comes into ED complaining of fever, rash a “cracking headache” and body aches. He has just hopped off the plane from Bali where he spent the last 2 weeks partying, boozing and running amok. He got bitten by “loads” of mosquitoes because he forgot to take insect repellent. On e...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine arthralgia dengue fever rash Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2018Source: Trends in Endocrinology &MetabolismAuthor(s): Shannon E. Mullican, Shamina M. RangwalaGrowth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) is a circulating protein that has been implicated in multiple biological processes, including energy homeostasis, body weight regulation, and cachexia driven by cancer and chronic disease. The potential to target GDF15 in the treatment of energy-intake disorders, including obesity and anorexia, is an area of intense investigation, but has been limited by the lack of an identified receptor, signaling mechanism, and target tissue. GDNF family ...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionDuring the PASAT-C, individuals with eating disorders (EDs) compared to HCs report higher levels of negative emotions, despite similar physiological and behavioral manifestations of distress.
Source: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
This article summarizes the current understanding of hemostatic changes of these extremes of body weight. The hemostatic changes of AN have not been well described. Severe AN is associated with pancytopenia with decreased bone marrow cellularity, which causes a mild thrombocytopenia. Platelet hyperaggregability has been recognized in AN and has been attributed at least in part to increased adrenoceptor density. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are associated with prothrombotic changes, which have been well characterized and related to complex adipocyte-induced inflammatory changes, including increased levels of plasminog...
Source: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
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