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Genetic variation in lung airways elevates risk of COPD

CT scans show that a quarter of the adult population has nonstandard airway...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: AI algorithm predicts lung disease, adverse events on CT COPD severity mirrors lung cancer incidence AJR: Ultralow-dose CT can evaluate COPD Group issues call for best lung cancer, COPD protocols Emphysema-related COPD on CT signals higher malignancy risk
Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news

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Purpose of review Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a well established risk factor for lung cancer. Newer studies reveal a myriad of other mechanisms, some proven and some putative, which may contribute to their association. Recent findings There is an ever-growing bundle of evidence that suggests a close association between persistent chronic inflammation and lung cancer. A few potential targets of genetic susceptibility locus for COPD and lung cancer have been suggested. Better characterization of immune dysregulation and identification of signaling pathways may assist the development of strategies to ...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: OBSTRUCTIVE, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES: Edited by Manish Joshi and Basil Varkey Source Type: research
Rationale: Patients with severe COPD and/or emphysema have a distinct pulmonary inflammome characterized by a different regulation of the immune response that should be better explored integrating the results of RNA expression with epigenetic changes.Objective: To compare the pulmonary mRNA and miRNA of COPD patients with and without emphysema (CT scan) and various disease severity.Methods: Lung tissue from 70 former smokers with COPD was obtained from individuals undergoing thoracic resectional surgery (mostly because of lung cancer) or lung transplantation explants. Total RNA was extracted, small RNA libraries were const...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Molecular Pathology and Functional Genomics Source Type: research
Conclusions: The wide use of CT imaging modalities has increased the incidence of ‘incidentalomas’ which in turn trigger further investigations/referrals in more than half of patients. Although this facilitates early diagnosis of indolent diseases it worth assessing their impact on a public health perspective and costings.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Lung Cancer Source Type: research
Authors: Fabre A, Treacy A, Lavelle LP, Narski M, Faheem N, Healy D, Dodd JD, Keane MP, Egan JJ, Jebrak G, Mal H, Butler MW Abstract More data are needed regarding the radiology, co-morbidities and natural history of smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF), a common pathological finding, mainly described heretofore in association with lung cancer, where respiratory bronchiolitis (RB) usually co-exists. We prospectively acquired high resolution CT scan data (edge-enhancing lung reconstructions) to detect any radiologic interstitial lung abnormality (ILA) in individuals who ultimately underwent surgical lobectom...
Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: COPD Source Type: research
Conclusions: Alterations to RV structure may represent a mechanism by which long-term PM10–2.5 exposure increases risks for adverse respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes, especially among certain susceptible populations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP658 Received: 14 June 2016 Revised: 24 February 2017 Accepted: 16 March 2017 Published: 27 July 2017 Address correspondence to S. D. Adar, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, SPH II-5539, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA. Telephone: (734) 615-9207; Email: sadar@umich.edu Supplemental Material is available online (https://doi.org/10.1289/E...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
We evaluated the prevalence of significant lung abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) in patients who died from a respiratory illness other than lung cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In this retrospective case–control study, NLST participants in the CT arm who died of respiratory illness other than lung cancer were matched for age, sex, pack-years and smoking status to a surviving control. A chest radiologist and a radiology resident blinded to the outcome independently scored baseline CT scans visually and qualitatively for the presence of emphysema, airway wall thickening and fibrotic lung di...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: COPD and smoking Original Articles: COPD Source Type: research
Ann G. Schwartz, PhD, MPHLung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the United States with an estimated 158,080 deaths in 2016 (accounting for 27% of all cancer deaths), and the second most frequent cancer diagnosed, behind breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men, with an estimated 224,390 new diagnoses in 2016. Incidence and mortality vary by race/ethnicity, with higher incidence rates seen in African Americans (67.0 per 100,000) as compared to whites (60.2 per 100,000), even though African Americans tend to smoke fewer cigarettes per day than whites. African Americans also have a median age at diag...
Source: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Lung Cancer: Oral Presentations - Invited Abstracts Source Type: research
Over the last half century, technology has made possible the probing of the solar system and galaxy beyond. People can instantly correspond with anyone in the world. We can see —in real time—events and phenomena heretofore only reported by second and third hand accounts. Yet with all of the distance breached by modern devices, we are also able to know in detail the goings on inside our own bodies. With the advent of computed tomography (CT) imaging, known familiarly as “CAT scans,” doctors and their patients now get a bird’s eye view of internal organs. This scientific know-how goes beyond sim...
Source: ePharma Summit - Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Anatomy CT Scan Lungs Medical Devices Source Type: blogs
Introduction: COPD is known to be associated with increased risk of lung cancer; however, it is unclear how patients with COPD should be followed up to detect the development of lung cancer.Aim: To investigate incidence and clinical characteristics of lung cancer in patients with COPD, using data from a 10-year prospective observational cohort study.Methods: A total of 279 subjects with COPD (GOLD 1, 26%; GOLD 2, 45%; GOLD 3, 24%; GOLD 4, 5%) participated in the Hokkaido COPD cohort study. Chest CT scans were taken every year during the first 5 years for all subjects and for another 5 years for those who agreed.Results: 39...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: 1.12 Clinical Problems - COPD Source Type: research
Conclusion: silicosis seems still common among silica exposed construction workers, together with co-existing comorbidities.References1. Suarthana E, Moons KG, Heederik D, Meijer E. A simple diagnostic model for ruling out pneumoconiosis among construction workers. Occup Environ Med. 2007; 64:595-601.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: 6.2 Occupational and Environmental Health Source Type: research
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